# Geometry of Lie Groups by Boris Rosenfeld (auth.)

By Boris Rosenfeld (auth.)

This booklet is the results of decades of analysis in Non-Euclidean Geometries and Geometry of Lie teams, in addition to instructing at Moscow nation college (1947- 1949), Azerbaijan kingdom collage (Baku) (1950-1955), Kolomna Pedagogical Col lege (1955-1970), Moscow Pedagogical collage (1971-1990), and Pennsylvania country college (1990-1995). My first books on Non-Euclidean Geometries and Geometry of Lie teams have been written in Russian and released in Moscow: Non-Euclidean Geometries (1955) [Ro1] , Multidimensional areas (1966) [Ro2] , and Non-Euclidean areas (1969) [Ro3]. In [Ro1] I thought of non-Euclidean geometries within the huge feel, as geometry of easy Lie teams, due to the fact classical non-Euclidean geometries, hyperbolic and elliptic, are geometries of straightforward Lie teams of periods Bn and D , and geometries of advanced n and quaternionic Hermitian elliptic and hyperbolic areas are geometries of straightforward Lie teams of sessions An and en. [Ro1] comprises an exposition of the geometry of classical genuine non-Euclidean areas and their interpretations as hyperspheres with pointed out antipodal issues in Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean areas, and in projective and conformal areas. a variety of interpretations of varied areas diversified from our ordinary house enable us, like stereoscopic imaginative and prescient, to determine many features of those areas absent within the traditional space.

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The fundamental group G of a homogeneous space G I H is called imprimitive if this space can be partitioned into classes such that every transformation in G preserves these classes. If the space G I H cannot be partitioned into such classes, G is called primitive. The most important spaces in geometry are homogeneous spaces G I H with G a Lie group. 26 O. 7. Symmetric Spaces. Very important in the classes of manifolds V n , Vp and An are the symmetric spaces, which can be defined as manifolds vn or Vp in which geodesic symmetries in points are isometries, or as manifolds An with torsion-free affine connection in which geodesic symmetries in points preserve the affine connection, that is, preserve geodesics and their affine parameters.

The quotient group Rn/Zn (Zn is the direct sum ofn groups Z) is isomorphic to the n-dimensional group Tn, called a torus group; Tn is isomorphic to the direct product of n groups T. The set of real (n x n)-matrices is, with respect to addition, an additive n 2 _ dimensional Lie group, isomorphic to the group R n 2. The set of all nonsingular (invertible) real (n x n)-matrices is, with respect to multiplication, a multiplicative n 2 -dimensional Lie group, called the general linear group and denoted by GL n .

Therefore, if ei is a basis in the space Ln* of covectors conjugate with the basis ei in Ln, that is, satisfying the conditions eie j = 151 (= 1 if i = j and = 0 if i =f. 34) Since the function y = f(x) can be written in coordinate form yi = A~xi, the coordinates A~, which are the coordinates of a tensor, can also be regarded as the coordinates of the linear operator A. The coordinates A~ are the entries of a square (n x n)-matrix (A~). Similarly, linear functions U = f(x), y = f(u), and v = f(u) also define linear operators which can be written as E ai .