Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry, 5E, Study Guide and by T. W. Graham Solomons

By T. W. Graham Solomons

A practical method of the examine of mechanisms. The e-book addresses genuine useful crew chemistry with an emphasis at the organic, environmental, and scientific functions of natural chemistry.

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The blue and red colors indicate opposite phase signs in each lobe of the π molecular orbital. A ball-and-stick model for the σ bonds in ethane can be seen through the mesh that indicates the π bond. 4. 24 How two isolated carbon p orbitals combine to form two π (pi) molecular orbitals. The bonding MO is of lower energy. The higher energy antibonding MO contains an additional node. ) 1) The bonding π orbital is the lower energy orbital and contains both π electrons (with opposite spins) in the ground state of the molecule.

3. The σ-bond framework: 4. Pi (π) bond: 1) The parallel p orbitals overlap above and below the plane of the σ framework. 2) The sideway overlap of p orbitals results in the formation of a π bond. 3) A π bond has a nodal plane passing through the two bonded nuclei and between the π molecular orbital lobes. 23 (a) A wedge-dashed wedge formula for the sigma bonds in ethane and a schematic depiction of the overlapping of adjacent p orbitals that form the π bond. (b) A calculated structure for enthene.

11 ~ H H N R H Ammonia H N H An amine C6H5CH2CHCH3 H2NCH2CH2CH2CH2NH2 NH2 Amphetamine (a dangerous stimulant) Putrescine (found in decaying meat) 2. 10A CARBONYL GROUP C O The carbonyl group O Aldehyde R C R may also be H H O O Ketone R C or R R 1. Examples of aldehydes and ketones: ~ 12 ~ C O or R' R" R1 C R2 Aldehydes: O O O O C C C C H H H 3C H Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde C 6H 5 H Benzaldehyde O Ketones: H3C C C 6H 5 H trans-Cinnamaldehyde (present in cinnamon) O CH3 H3CH2C Acetone C O CH3 Carvone (from spearmint) Ethyl methyl ketone 2.

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