Fundamental astronomy by Karttunen H., Kroger P., et al.

By Karttunen H., Kroger P., et al.

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2005) considered a three-dimensional bipolar magnetic field driven into evolution by the slow turbulent diffusion of its normal component on the boundary. At the CPA, Jacobs et al. 5 D (spherical, axi-symmetric) wind models reproduced with the same numerical code, the same numerical scheme, the same boundary conditions and the same numerical grid. SIMULATION MODELS FOR CME INITIATION Heliospheric models of CME propagation and evolution provide an important insight into the dynamics of CMEs and are a valuable tool for interpreting interplanetary in situ observations.

These capabilities will be improved upon with soon to be launched satellites, such as the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). STEREO, to be launched in late 2006, will employ two nearly identical space-based observatories – one ahead of Earth in its orbit, the other trailing behind – to provide stereoscopic measurements of solar features, such as active regions and CMEs. SDO, to be launched in 2008, will contain a suite of three instruments to provide line-of-sight and vector magnetograms, EUV images, and EUV irradiance measurements.

For cases not meeting these (rather strict) conditions, we need to resort to numerical methods to investigate the scaling. Focused Transport Model Because of the focusing effect due to the outwards decreasing magnetic field magnitude in the inner heliosphere, the anisotropies become too large for the diffusion model to be applicable if the mean free path in the IP medium is comparable to the radial distance from the Sun. We, thus, need a transport equation describing the evolution of the particle distribution function f s p t , which gives the number of particles per unit volume of the six-dimensional phase space r p .

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