Fission, Fusion and the Energy Crisis by S. E. Hunt

By S. E. Hunt

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R. 'Dresden ' (Fig. , and came into operation in June 1960. 5% of U. -thick pressure vessel some 35 ft in diameter and 70 ft high. 6. P . W . R . R. are known as 'light-water reactors' ( L . W . R . ) as opposed to the heavy-water-moderated natural-uranium reactors of the C a n d u series. T h e one British reactor design using water moderation, the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor, is a hybrid of the 34 Enriched Reactors Canadian and American systems in that, like C a n d u , the fuel elements are contained in pressurised tubes but cooled by ordinary (light) water.

Again p r o m p t criticality must be avoided during operation, limiting the actual operational excess reactivity to a m a x i m u m value of 0 . 6 % . It is, however, now possible to minimise the effects of fission product poisoning by partially refuelling power reactors during operation and also by 'shuffling' the fuel elements, that is interchanging those which have been exposed to high neutron intensities near the centre of the reactor with those which have been exposed to lower neutron intensities near the edge.

The boiling water reactor 'Dresden'. αϊ Water FIG. 17. A S . G . H . W . reactor circuit. Reactors 41 42 Enriched Reactors FUEL LOADING ROTATABLE CAP BORATED /GRAPHITE SHIELD MAGNETIC PUMP FIG. 18. Loop-type fast breeder ( D . F . R . Dounreay). SECONDARY SODIUM COOLANT CIRCUIT I—PRIMARY PUMP MOTOR GROUND LEVEL '^-CONCRETE PRIMARY PUMP FIG. 19. Pool-type fast breeder ( P . F . R . Dounreay). Enriched Reactors 43 FIG. 20. Molten-salt breeder reactor core and cooling system. References CEBONE, R.

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