Filaggrin: Basic Science, Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects and by Jacob P. Thyssen, Howard I. Maibach

By Jacob P. Thyssen, Howard I. Maibach

Filaggrin gene mutations are universal in Europeans and their descendants, in addition to in Asians, attaining a occurrence of as much as 10%. Filaggrin proteins are the most important for epidermis homeostasis as their metabolites retain epidermis hydration, retain the outside pH low, and supply defense opposed to sun radiation. FLG mutation providers be afflicted by dry and scaly dermis and feature an elevated move of allergens and chemical compounds around the dermis. additionally, they've got 10% better serum diet D degrees, almost certainly affecting the propensity to enhance different ailments. FLG loss-of-function mutations signify the most powerful possibility issue hitherto came upon for atopic dermatitis and are significant predisposing elements for similar bronchial asthma and hay fever. This textbook offers entire and precise insurance of the consequences of FLG mutations in overall healthiness and affliction (cutaneous and non-cutaneous) and in addition discusses the fundamental technological know-how, epidemiology, administration, and destiny examine areas.

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5. O’Regan GM, Sandilands A, McLean WH, Irvine AD. Filaggrin in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(4):689–93. PubMed PMID: 18774165. 6. Weidinger S, Baurecht H, Wagenpfeil S, Henderson J, Novak N, Sandilands A, et al. Analysis of the individual and aggregate genetic contributions of previously identified serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 (SPINK5), kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7), and filaggrin (FLG) polymorphisms to eczema risk. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(3):560–8 e4.

Long-term treatment with moisturizers affects the mRNA levels of genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. Arch Dermatol Res. 2009;301:175–81. 10. Jensen JM, Pfeiffer S, Witt M, Bräutigam M, Neumann C, Weichenthal M, et al. Different effects of pimecrolimus and betamethasone on the skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:1124–33. 11. Jensen JM, Scherer A, Wanke C, Bräutigam M, Bongiovanni S, Letzkus M, et al. Gene expression is differently affected by pimecrolimus and betamethasone in lesional skin of atopic dermatitis.

The abovementioned increased skin pH in filaggrin-depleted SC could also impact SC function by altering TJ function and by favoring CD proteolysis, which could further compromise barrier function [55]. 2 Morphology of Filaggrin-Depleted Epidermis 17 a b c Fig. 6 Defective lamellar body (LB) contents in LB secretory system in filaggrin-depleted epidermis. (a, b) Non-lamellar (vesicular) contents at the SG-SC interface d (asterisks). (c, d) Non-lamellar (vesicular) contents (asterisks) in single LBs, suggesting defective loading of organelle contents.

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