Fault Tolerant Flight Control: A Benchmark Challenge by Christopher Edwards, Thomas Lombaerts, Hafid Smaili
By Christopher Edwards, Thomas Lombaerts, Hafid Smaili
The eu Flight Mechanics motion workforce FM-AG(16) on Fault Tolerant keep watch over, confirmed in 2004 and concluded in 2008, represented a collaboration regarding 13 eu companions from undefined, universities and learn institutions less than the auspices of the crowd for Aeronautical learn and know-how in Europe (GARTEUR) application. The e-book includes 5 components. half I includes the creation and motivation of this study venture and a cutting-edge evaluation in Fault Tolerant Flight keep watch over (FTC). half II comprises the outline of the benchmark problem, such as info of the benchmark simulation version and the review standards used to judge the functionality of the Fault Tolerant Controllers. half III covers the entire diversified FDI/FTC layout equipment which were utilized to the benchmark simulation version. There are various evaluate equipment for those FDI/FTC designs, specifically an off-line evaluate utilizing the overview standards within the benchmark simulation version in Matlab, and an online review on Delft’s SIMONA examine Simulator. The off-line reviews are defined within the person chapters partly III, while the latter is handled greatly partly IV the place the genuine time exams at the SIMONA examine Simulator are brought and mentioned. ultimately half V specializes in a overview of the utilized tools from an business point of view including a few concluding remarks.
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Extra info for Fault Tolerant Flight Control: A Benchmark Challenge
The airplane was destroyed completely by the impact forces and post-crash fire, and the 2 flight crew-members, 3 flight attendants and 20 passengers aboard were fatally injured. The subsequent investigation by the NTSB lasted one year and 9 months. Despite extensive damage to the flight data recorder (FDR), all the data was extractable. The Fig. 30 Trajectory of United Airlines Flight 585, source: . 34 T. Lombaerts, H. Smaili, and J. Breeman FDR only recorded five parameters4. The flightpath, pitch and roll angles were determined by calculations using the heading and normal acceleration (G-loads) data.
Lombaerts, H. Smaili, and J. Breeman the pilots, and on-line generated diagnostic information could have been useful to recover the plane. However, it should be noted that once the pilot let the speed decrease to V2, the angle of attack of the affected left wing exceeded its stall limit thus causing a non recoverable loss of control. It is important to realize that the main contribution fault tolerant control could most probably provide in this situation, was to improve the reaction time of the pilot to recover and stabilize the aircraft and to prevent the speed to decay by taking into account the minimum speed limit.
Unfortunately, since the flaps were stuck at their ‘in’-position, the crew was forced to make their approach at high speed. Moreover, the sluggish aircraft responses to the throttle setting changes made it particularly difficult to make changes in the aircraft final approach path and speed close to the runway. This resulted in the final seconds of flight being in a nearly unsurvivable situation. Any throttle change induced some very badly damped phugoid oscillations, which are extremely dangerous at this altitude.