Extrasolar Planets by Belmonte J. A.
By Belmonte J. A.
Vast creation to extrasolar planets for graduate scholars and study astronomers.
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1. Motivation and context The hypothesis of the formation of planets in our Solar System from a solar nebula, in a ﬂattened gaseous disc in diﬀerential rotation, is more than two centuries old. This approach was ﬁrst proposed by Kant around 1755 and then developed by Laplace (1796). The idea came in a natural way from the observation of the planet conﬁguration in our Solar System: they turn in the same direction, on quasi-circular orbits, in a quasi-common plane. Although only qualitative, the ideas developed at that time are very similar to fundamental precepts accepted today: local instability of a gaseous cloud, collapse in a rotating disc, privileged location of planet formation.
Moons of transiting planets may also be detected by a slight increase in brightness during a transit (the moon transiting the transiting planet and thereby not blocking out light for a time; Sartoretti and Schneider 1999). Such slight increases in brightness have been observed during transits of HD209458 but attributed rather to starspots being 18 Laurance R. Doyle transited by the planet rather than a moon in orbit around such short-period planets as HD209458b where moon-orbits can apparently not be expected to be stable (Barnes and O’Brien 2002).