Experimental organic chemistry by James F. Norris

By James F. Norris

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Heat the tube carefully until the mixture becomes homogenous; then more strongly until a steady stream of gas is evolved. Collect three 250-cc. wide-mouthed bottles of the gas, and prepare an explosive mixture of ethylene and air. This can be done by placing 20 cc. of water in a 250-cc. widemouthed bottle, covering the latter with a glass plate, inverting in a pneumatic trough, and displacing the water by ethylene. —Throw a lighted match into a bottle of ethylene. In order to facilitate the removal of the gas, a stream of water should be poured into the bottle as the gas burns.

From the side-tube. In distilling with small flasks an asbestos shield as described in §18, page 10, and a very small flame should always be used; a short thermometer reduces the error arising from stem-exposure. The boiling-point of 1 cc. of liquid can be determined in this way. In heating the substance, the flame should be applied, at first, in such a way that the vapor condenses in the flask just before it reaches the side-tube. In this way the thermometer is heated up to the temperature of the vapor before the latter is driven over.

In separate testtubes shake about 5 cc. of distilled kerosene with 10 cc. each of concentrated nitric acid, concentrated sulphuric acid, and a 48 EXPERIMENTAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY dilute solution of sodium hydroxide. Note if heat is evolved or if there is a change in color. Record your observations and conclusions. Gasoline behaves in a similar way. —Test the solubility of about 2 cc. of kerosene or 1 gram of paraffin in water, ether, alcohol, and ligroin or petroleum ether. —Volatile inflammable liquids such as ether, alcohol, and petroleum ether should not be heated over a free flame.

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