Estuaries: A Lifeline of Ecosystem Services in the Western by Salif Diop, Peter Scheren, John Ferdinand Machiwa
By Salif Diop, Peter Scheren, John Ferdinand Machiwa
This ebook offers contemporary environmental, ecological and hydrodynamic info for the most important estuaries and the coastal marine structures of the Western Indian Ocean quarter. It covers a number of services and values of the region’s estuarine ecosystems and their respective habitats, together with the land/ocean interactions that outline and impression environment providers. The Western Indian Ocean quarter lined by means of this quantity includes the continental coastal states of Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa and Tanzania and the island states of Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Comoros.
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Extra info for Estuaries: A Lifeline of Ecosystem Services in the Western Indian Ocean
The coral communities here represent the southernmost distribution of these biota on the African coast, reportedly characterized as high coral cover, alhtoughdominated by soft corals (Schleyer and Celliers 2002). The coral reefs of South Africa, however, are not true accretive reefs, since corals only grow as a thin cover over the limited sandstone substrata (Ramsay and Mason 1990; Ramsay 1996). 1% of the total coral reefs in the WIO region (Spalding et al. 2001). The granitic islands on the Seychelles Bank are surrounded by widespread, discontinuous fringing reefs (Spalding et al.
2006). Although the Limpopo River estuary is comparatively small, it plays an important role in supporting fisheries and providing a breeding ground for shrimp (Louw and Gichuki 2003). Sea water intrusion into the river is regularly measured up to 55 km upstream and up to 80 km during droughts (Anon. Mozambique 2007). Between 40,000 and 60,000 hectares of floodplain directly upstream of the estuary are extensively cultivated by local farmers (Louw and Gichuki 2003). The Incomati River is shared by South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique, with its six tributaries supporting a large variety of ecosystems, including important conservation areas such as the Kruger National Park.
Parrotfish (Scaridae) and some surgeonfish (Acanthuridae) also are caught in nets as they cross the reef The Western Indian Ocean: A Wealth of Life-Supporting Ecosystem Goods and Services crest at high tide to feed (Darwall and Guard 2000). Many species, particularly highly-valued groupers (Serranidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae), are fished using baited hook and line set from dugout sailing canoes, small dhows or other vessels at anchor on or around reefs (Darwall and Guard 2000). Penaeid Shrimp Fisheries In WIO countries endowed with large river mouths and mangrove forests, nutrient-rich sediments support a productive soft sediment ecosystem dominated by benthic-feeding penaeid shrimps.