Essentials of electromyography by Gary Kamen

By Gary Kamen

The curiosity in and use of electromyography (EMG) have grown considerably in recent times. Researchers have discovered quite a few scientific and learn makes use of for EMG, together with biofeedback, gait research, and medical prognosis for neuromuscular issues. but, beforehand, few assets were to be had to assist beginners comprehend the features of the instrumentation, sign research options, and applicable EMG Read more...

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The geometry of the physical system is mirrored as the electrode moves past the dipole center and beyond. There is a gradual increase in the difference (r ) between r1 and r2 as the electrode moves between P4 and P5. In this case, the positive charge is closest to the electrode and dominates the net potential, so the MFAP reverses polarity. Maximum positivity is achieved close to electrode position P5, past the positive charge. Because the maxima are attained outside the dipole, the distance between the negative and positive peaks is greater than the distance (b) between the two charges.

Resistance to the flow of charges offered by the conductive wire is negligible compared to that of the resistive material. As the charges enter the resistor, they collide with the atoms within the resistor. The collisions transfer electric potential energy from the charges and increase the kinetic energy of the atoms within the resistor, which is expressed as heat (conservation of energy). The charges therefore perform work on the resistor, transferring energy to it. In doing so, the charges experience a potential drop between B and A as given by Vba = iR.

For a series arrangement, each capacitor represents additional surface area over which to distribute the same charge. Consequently, there is a successive decrease in electric potential associated with each capacitor in the series. 7 Electrical circuits composed of capacitors arranged (a) in series and (b) in parallel. 7b/337449/TB/R3-alw the potential differences across the three capacitors is equal to the potential difference supplied by the battery: V = V1 + V2 + V3. The relationship for capacitance (C = Q/V) can be used to substitute for V: Q Q1 Q2 Q3 = + + C C1 C2 C3 Dividing through by Q because all charges are equivalent, 1 1 1 1 = + + .

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