Engineering Hydrology by E. M. Wilson Ph.D., M.Sc., F.I.C.E. (auth.)

By E. M. Wilson Ph.D., M.Sc., F.I.C.E. (auth.)

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It has been found that the method gives reasonably good results whatever the vegetation cover, though different types of vegetation will affect a particular locality's true value. The formula is based on temperature, which does not necessarily correspond to incoming solar radiation immediately, because of the "heat inertia" ofland and water. Transpiration, however, responds directly to solar radiation. Accordingly, care should be exercised when using the method to ensure that conditions do not change abruptly in a particular month, though if figures for many consecutive months are being used, the cumulative differences are probably negligible.

2 Ea = Cf(u) (e8 - e) and Eq. 11) Eo e 8 - e :. - where Ea = evaporation (in energy terms) for the hypothetical case of equal temperatures of air and water, te e:s ~ "'o_ 30 Q_ 0 > t's Temperafure - FIG. 1 Saturation vapour pressure curve then by substituting in Eq. 9) the values of Eqs. ,=-:-c:---:-----:----:-=;; 1 + ! 12) has values obtained from the saturation vapour pressure curve, typically as shown: t = ooc ~ = 0·36 0·61 10 1·07 20 1·80 30 ~ Evaporation and Transpiration 31 Referring to Eqs.

Consumptive use refers to water that is actually used while evapotranspiration formulae give potential water use. Reference to Fig. 3 will show that for a particular locality, unless the rain falls when it is needed, a large water deficit may develop in the growing season despite quite high rainfall. In a case like this consumptive use will be less than potential evapo-transpiration and a need for irrigation in the growing period is indicated. Actual measurements of consumptive use are very difficult and slow to make and may be very expensive.

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