Energy application of biomass by M.Z. Lowenstein

By M.Z. Lowenstein

This E. & F. N. Spon identify is now dispensed by means of Routledge within the US and Canada

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PIK will not operate in 1984– 85. Direct government payments are forecast to be $8–10 billion in 1983 and $6– 10 billion in 1984. Price support and direct payments to farmers in the United States went up by 792% between 1970 and 1982. It is projected to rise by a further 115% to $68 billion by 2000. In the EEC in 1983, agricultural subsidies amounted to some $15 billion. 83 billion. The cost of EEC farm policies to the UK consumer in 1979–80 came to an astounding £3,350 million or nearly £13,000 for every farmer, while the gross product of British agriculture was then only £5,420 million (Refs.

But older missions also survived, and in some cases were actually expanded; for example, R&D in agriculture, health, and commerce-related mission areas such as meteorology, geodesy, and oceanography, to name but a few. Descriptions of the period point to the contrast between pre- and post-World War II. Prior to the war, science and government shared a mutual distrust. ” And government, meaning both career and elected officials, had become convinced that science and the application of knowledge could contribute significantly to the achievement of high-priority national goals.

2) sugar and animal products, average 1981–82; crops other than sugar: average 1981– 82, 1982–83. Source: Ref. 25. 24 ENERGY APPLICATIONS OF BIOMASS Although these agricultural surpluses are substantial, they are very small compared to the volume of the oil market. Between 1978–81 the potential quantity of alcohol that could be (expensively) produced from unmarketed fruit and wine averaged at 223 million L, some 204,000 tons of oil equivalent (toe), or only 3% of total oil demand. And converting 35% of the export sugar would really only amount to a nonpayment of subsidies.

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