Encyclopedia of Fish Physiology: From Genome to Environment by Anthony P. Farrell

By Anthony P. Farrell

Fish shape an incredibly varied workforce of vertebrates. At a conservative estimate at the least forty% of the world's vertebrates are fish. at the one hand they're united through their diversifications to an aquatic setting and at the different they convey various variations to differing environmental stipulations - frequently to extremes of temperature, salinity, oxygen point and water chemistry. They express an array of behavioural and reproductive platforms. fascinating of their personal correct, this suite of adaptive physiologies presents many version structures for either comparative vertebrate and human physiologists.This 4 quantity encyclopedia covers the range of fish body structure in over three hundred articles and gives access point details for college students and precis overviews for researchers alike.Broadly organised into 4 issues, articles disguise sensible, Thematic, and Phylogenetic body structure, and Fish GenomicsFunctional articles tackle the conventional facets of fish body structure which are universal to all parts of vertebrate body structure together with: copy, breathing, Neural (Sensory, valuable, Effector), Endocrinology, Renal, Cardiovascular, Acid-base stability, Osmoregulation, Ionoregulation, Digestion, Metabolism, Locomotion, and so on.Thematic body structure articles are rigorously chosen and less in quantity. they supply a degree of integration that is going past the insurance within the practical body structure themes and contain discussions of Toxicology, Air-breathing, Migrations, Temperature, Endothermy, etc.Phylogenetic body structure articles compile details that bridges the body structure of convinced groupings of fishes the place the information base has a enough intensity and breadth and contain articles on historical Fishes, Tunas, Sharks, etc.Genomics articles describe the underlying genetic element of fish body structure and excessive gentle their suitability and use as version organisms for the examine of illness, rigidity and physiological diversifications and reactions to exterior stipulations. * The definitive encyclopedia for the sector of Fish body structure. * 3 volumes which comprehensively hide the total box in over three hundred entries written via experts.* particular assurance of uncomplicated useful body structure of fishes, Physiological subject matters in Fish Biology and Comparative body structure among taxonomic Groups.* Describes the genomic bases of fish body structure and biology and using fish as version organisms in human physiological research.* Includes a word list of terms.* to be had online in listed searchable layout.

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A consequence of this hypothesis is that many problems in establishing homology of peripheral nerves and sensory organs across deuterostomes become obsolete, leading to the more parsimonious idea that the formation of a CNS comes about by aggregating a subepidermal nerve net and condensation of distributed sensory cells into sensory organs. Such centralization may have happened at least twice in deuterostomes (acorn worms, chordates) and at least twice in protostomes (insects and related species; mollusks, and related species).

In the case of nucleus A projecting to nucleus B, the axons that arise from neuron cell bodies in nucleus A would be efferent projections of that nucleus. Note that the adjectives efferent and afferent can apply to the same set of axons; the terms are used in reference to the nucleus from which they arise vs. the nucleus to which they project, respectively. Ganglion A collection of nerve cell bodies of similar function. A ganglion is a type of nucleus but often refers to structures in the peripheral nervous system.

The most parsimonious interpretation is to assume that the dorsal and ventral position of the CNS in protostomes and deuterostomes is an independent condensation of the ancestral nerve net making obsolete the apparent need for a dorsal–ventral position reversal. In the absence of understanding all the genes involved in these processes and their interactions, it appears most parsimonious to assume that the already known differences are likely to indicate a nonhomologous origin of a 10 Brain and Nervous System | Cranial and Spinal Nerves of Fishes: Evolution of the Craniate Pattern CNS based on partially homologous transcription-factor actions to transform an epidermal plexus-like PNS, as was initially proposed for the acorn worm.

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