Elijah in Upper Egypt: The Apocalypse of Elijah and Early by David Frankfurter
By David Frankfurter
This crucial contribution to our wisdom of Egyptian Christianity within the overdue 3rd century contains dialogue of —the Apocalypse of Elijah as spiritual literature;—the Egyptian provenance of the document;—its social and historic context;—a entire translation.“Frankfurter’s research of The Apocalypse of Elijah is a close and artistic piece of labor. His mastery of literary concept and the social-scientific technique is obvious all through, and the union of the 2 tools during this paintings is impressive.” —James E. Goehring, Mary Washington College“This publication is a outstanding piece of labor. Frankfurter makes a resounding case for using local Egyptian prophetic traditions within the Apocalypse of Elijah.” —Birger A. Pearson, college of California, Santa Barbara>
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A few reflections:
(1) That Francis used to be a fine looking guy, as instructed through the author,was infrequently the case. we've modern pictures of Francis displaying in a different way besides descriptions of his contemporaries corresponding to Thomas of Celano;
(2) That Francis was once a womanizer, back instructed through the writer, is uncertain. there's no facts in any respect of this. In thirteenth Century Assisi, this kind of small city, it can were prohibitied except the writer is suggesting Francis visited homes of prostitution. there's no checklist of this in any respect. the writer is placing her twenty first Century inklings into the thirteenth Century;
(3) there's no indication in any respect that Francis had any romantic feelings
toward Claire of Assisi. heritage is totally silent in this factor. the writer is true pertaining to Francis' and his love of Arthurian legends.
As a question of background, the belief of chivalric love prohibited sexual touch. girl Poverty used to be simply that - a component of his mystical existence. And certainly the age distinction is suspect - Francis used to be virtually 30 whilst he switched over to the paranormal existence - Claire turning 14 - 15;
(4) convinced, Francis did visit conflict. the writer says he was once a "warrior. "
Such a notice indicates a life-style which may infrequently painting the Francis of Assisi of historic checklist. certain, he went to conflict yet we haven't any suggestion of what he did. He can have killed or he might have been nursing the wounded in his first conflict. we do not understand. We do recognize he was once attempting to satisfy his father's aspirations whilst he armored as much as pass at the Cursades. This enterprise, we all know, used to be interrupted by means of a paranormal occasion for Francis. He became again and have become a knight of his Lord - the magical Christ who ultimately spoke to him at Daniano. was once he then a "failed knight? " as advised by way of the writer. Francis proposal another way. the matter right here seems to be the author's loss of spiritual intuition which might make such occasions incomprehensible. If something could be stated approximately Francis at this juncture is that he did not reside as much as his father's needs - a failed son instead of a failed knight. the connection among Francis and his father is a gold mine that merits mental scrutiny - to make certain a Freudian might come to another end than a Jungian.
(5)The writer contends that he created friendship with the Muslims. hugely exagerated. Francis used to be a medieval guy and probably suggestion as such a lot medieval Christians the idea of the hugely influential Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, the 1st preacher of the Crusades a century previous. Bernard acknowledged "to kill a Muslim isn't to dedicate homocide. " Francis faced the Sultan in the course of the Crusades. at the moment he justified the killing going as being valuable till the Muslims authorized the Gospel of Jesus Christ. On his go back from the Crusades he not just didn't hold forth opposed to the Crusades yet his Order, the Franciscans, have been ordered through the Pope to evangelise the Crusades. during this ability, they went from city to city to elevate males, cash and fabric for the Crusades. Had it no longer been for the Franciscans the Crusades couldn't have occurred in that century. No objections from the founder here;
There are many sturdy books on Saint Francis. this isn't one in all them. the writer lacks the spirit of the age, the non secular intuition which can understand what the actors are facing. i'm sorry to assert this isn't stable heritage. it really is sloppy historical past reflecting the emotions of the current into the prior. Of the potential 5 stars I remove 3 for wish of background yet supply it one superstar for the canopy and one big name for the paper it truly is written on. Why punish the blameless whether inanimate?
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Additional resources for Elijah in Upper Egypt: The Apocalypse of Elijah and Early Egyptian Christianity (Studies in Antiquity & Christianity)
Rollin Kearns, Das Traditionsgefiige urn den Menschensohn (Tubingen: M o h r [Siebeck), 1986). 38. , 9 6 - 1 0 0 . 39. , 9 8 - 9 9 . 40. S e e remarks by John Collins in his review of Kearns, in /BL 107 (1988):538. 41. Cf. Schwartz, "Les palmyreniens," 76. W a b a l l a t h ' s appearance on coins with Aurelian in 2 7 0 showed not his coimperial pretensions but Zenobia's arrogating of his father's title, Corrector Orientis, for her son. T h e r e is e v i d e n c e that Zenobia conciliated certain Greco-Egyptian sentiments (and devoted considerable propaganda to e n h a n c e this effect by appearing as a new Cleopatra; cf.
2 1 2 - 1 7 . 28. , 2 2 2 - 2 5 . 29. A t h i r d - c e n t u r y p s e u d o n y m o u s a u t h o r w h o " p r e d i c t e d " Z e n o b i a ( w h o p r e s e n t e d herself as the n e w Cleopatra) as a savior-king would have had a considerable " e s c h a t o l o g i c a l w o m a n ' tradition f r o m w h i c h to d r a w a p p r o p r i a t e s y m b o l s (cf. Sib. Or. 3 . 7 5 - 8 2 , 3 5 6 - 6 2 ; 8 . 7 5 - 8 0 , 1 9 4 - 2 1 2 ; V a l e n t i n N i k i p r o w e t z k y , La troisrtme Sibylle, Etudes 15 The Coptic Apocalypse of Elijah t h i s s e c t i o n , w h a t c e r t a i n i n d i c a t i o n s are t h e r e t h a t h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s are p o r t r a y e d ex eventu—that t h e e n t i r e e p i s o d e is n o t a p r o p h e t i c f a n t a s y ?
Pace F r a n ? o i s e D u n a n d , " L ' O r a c l e d u P o t i e r et la f o r m a t i o n d e l ' a p o c a l y p t i q u e e n E g y p t e , " in L'Apocalyptique, ed. M . P h i l o n e n k o a n d M . S i m o n , E t u d e s d ' h i s t o i r e d e s religions 3 (Paris: P a u l G e u t h n e r , 1977), 56. E. a n d t h e r e f o r e h a v e p l a c e d t h e text's e x t a n t f o r m t o w a r d its later term i n u s : t h a t is, a r o u n d 2 6 0 - 2 9 5 . D e b a t e , as w e h a v e s e e n , h a s c o n c e r n e d t h e d a t i n g o f e a r l i e r Vorlagen.