electronic noise and fluctuations in solids by Sh. Kogan
By Sh. Kogan
This e-book seems to be on the physics of digital fluctuations (noise) in solids. the writer emphasizes many primary experiments that experience develop into classics: actual mechanisms of fluctuations, and the character and value of noise. He additionally contains the main entire and whole evaluation of flicker (1/f) noise within the literature. it will likely be invaluable to graduate scholars and researchers in physics and digital engineering, and particularly these engaging in study within the fields of noise phenomena and hugely delicate digital devices--detectors, digital units for low-noise amplifiers, and quantum magnetometers (SQUIDS).
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The goal of the neutrino factory would be to provide 3 x 1020 muon decays per year. Acceleration of a muon beam is challenging because of the large phase space and short muon lifetime. The need for very large beam acceptances drives the design to a low RF frequency of 200 MHz. To minimize muon loss from decay, the highest possible gradient is necessary. At gradients of 15 MV/m SRF reduces the peak RF power by virtue of long fill times made affordable by superconductivity. SRF cavities also provide a large aperture that helps preserve beam quality and beam stability.
A storage ring keeps the power costs down by reusing the energetic electrons many times. ERLs resolve the power dilemma by reusing the beam energy. After producing SR, the electrons in an ERL reenter the linac, but 180º out of accelerating phase. The bunches then decelerate and yield their energy back to the electromagnetic field in the linac. When bunches emerge from the linac with the low injector energy (minus SR losses), a weak bending magnet deflects them into a beam dump. The energy recovered by the linac accelerates new electrons.
Linacs in general demonstrate operational flexibility; changes in beam energy, bunch length, and pulse patterns. After acceleration, by the linac, superior high energy bunches pass though undulators to produce SR beams with unprecedented characteristics. The problem is that the beam currents required for high radiation flux carry enormous power. For example, a 5 GeV, 100 mA electron beam carries 500 MW of beam power! A comparison of vertical and horizontal emittances for rings and linacs. 59 SRF-2004 Therefore, it is economically unfeasible to simply dump the electrons after acceleration.