Electrochemical Biosensors by Serge Cosnier

By Serge Cosnier

This publication offers an summary of biosensors in accordance with amperometry, conductimetry, potentiometry, square-wave voltammetry, impedance, and electrochemiluminescence and describes using ultramicroelectrodes for the real-time tracking and realizing of exocytosis. parts of specific curiosity are using silver and gold nanoparticles for sign amplification, photocurrent transduction, and aptamer layout. in addition, complex insights within the leading edge proposal of self-powered biosensors derived from biofuel cells also are discussed.

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2007) Characterization of sequential exocytosis in a human neuroendocrine cell line using evanescent wave microscopy and “virtual trajectory” analysis, Eur. Biophys. , 37, 55–69. 19. , Marty, A. (1982) Discrete changes of cell-membrane capacitance observed under conditions of enhanced secretion in © 2013 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 01-Serge-Cosnier-c01 November 11, 2014 15:47 PSP Book - 9in x 6in 01-Serge-Cosnier-c01 References 43 bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. , 79, 6712– 6716.

33. Chow, R. , Neher, E. (1992) Delay in vesicle fusion revealed by electrochemical monitoring of single secretory events in adrenal chromaffin cells, Nature, 356, 60–63. 34. , Misler, S. (1996) Amperometric detection of quantal secretion from patch-clamped rat pancreatic beta-cells, J. Biol. , 271, 270– 277. 35. Patel, B. , Galligan, J. , Swain, G. M. (2007) In vitro continuous amperometric monitoring of 5hydroxytryptamine release from enterochromaffin cells of the guinea pig ileum, Analyst, 132, 41–47.

Though this contains precious information, PSFs are seldom analyzed, may be because their precise measurement requires very high resolution and an excellent S/N ratio. When observable, the amount of catecholamines released during a PSF (Qfoot ) and the probability of foot observation do not vary when modifying the cell membrane with exogenous lipids, whereas the kinetics of the fusion pore are greatly affected [40, 45–48]. The same trend is observed when altering the cell membrane tension and viscosity, that is, by submitting the cell to brief hypotonic (200 mOsm) or hypertonic (750 mOsm) shocks (note that normal control conditions correspond to 315 mOsm) [47, 49, 50] or to reduced temperature (15◦ C and 22◦ C compared to 37◦ C) [46].

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