Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and by National Academy of Sciences
By National Academy of Sciences
An element within the America's power destiny learn, Electricity from Renewable Resources examines the technical capability for electrical energy iteration with replacement assets equivalent to wind, solar-photovoltaic, geothermal, solar-thermal, hydroelectric, and different renewable assets. The ebook specializes in these renewable assets that express the main promise for preliminary advertisement deployment inside of 10 years and may bring about a considerable effect at the U.S. power system.
A quantitative characterization of applied sciences, this e-book lays out expectancies of prices, functionality, and affects, in addition to boundaries and learn and improvement wishes. as well as a central specialize in renewable power applied sciences for energy new release, the ebook addresses the demanding situations of incorporating such applied sciences into the ability grid, in addition to capability advancements within the nationwide electrical energy grid which could let higher and extra large usage of wind, solar-thermal, sun photovoltaics, and different renewable applied sciences.
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Additional info for Electricity from Renewable Resources: Status, Prospects, and Impediments
2005). Palmer and Burtraw (2005) found that a national RPS was more cost-effective in promoting renewables than was a PTC or a carbon cap-and-trade policy that allocated allowances to all generators, including generators using renewables, on the basis of production costs. That study also found that the cost of implementing an RPS rose substantially when the standard for percentage of energy generated from renewables increased from 15 percent to 20 percent. Dobesova et al. (2005) found that under the Texas RPS the cost per ton of CO2 emissions reduced was approximately the same as that with a pulverized coal plant with carbon capture and storage (CCS) or with a natural gas combined cycle plant with CCS, and was less cost-effective compared to an integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant with CCS (although the panel notes that no pulverized coal plants with CCS have been constructed and that cost estimates for A controversial aspect of some of the RPSs is the inclusion of some technologies not broadly accepted as renewable.
S. industrial, residential, and transportation sectors during the 20th century. But as fossil-fuel consumption has increased, a result of population growth and growth in our standard of living, so have the concerns over energy security and the negative impacts of greenhouse gases on the environment. Volatilities in foreign energy markets affecting fuel prices and availability have long raised the issue of domestic energy security. S. energy demands. At this time, renewable sources of energy, or renewables, have enormous potential to reduce the negative impacts of energy use and to increase the domestic resource base.
Because of the variability in RPSs and the fact that they do not involve a direct cost, in contrast to the federal renewables production tax credits (PTCs; discussed below in the section titled “Federal Policies”), it is difficult to formulate a general assessment of the performance and electricity price impacts of state RPSs (Rickerson and Grace, 2007; Wiser and Barbose, 2008). Of the states that could be evaluated, Wiser and Barbose (2008) estimated that 9 of 14 were meeting their RPS requirements.