Ecology and Exchange in the Andes by David Lehmann

By David Lehmann

For hundreds of years Andean civilization and ecology has afforded a distinct fascination for ecu travelers and officers. during this quantity, 8 writers - anthropologists, economists and historians operating in Bolivia, Britain, France, eire and Peru - describe and examine facets of rural society in numerous Andean areas. They specialise in the effect of capitalist improvement on either the peasant economic system and the landed elite within the Andes and the ways that that influence has been formed by way of a particular Andean tradition and a attribute Andean ecology and weather. Their dialogue of Andean specificity centres at the proposal of verticality, first built via John Murra to explain political and monetary variation to climatic version within the Andean eco-system. the quantity represents a considerable contribution to our figuring out of Andean rural society and the character of the Latin American peasantry and peasant economic system. it's going to attract all these drawn to monetary anthropology, Latin the US, peasant stories and the capitalist world-economy.

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Land scarcity may oblige a productive unit to increase the mass of seasonal migrants, although other factors, such as lack of animals, may also be relevant. This means of access to sources of money or kind has long been incorporated into the annual calendar of the Northern Potosi peasant: traditionally it has involved temporary labour in the small mines, and the waste-heaps of the larger ones; today many peasants contribute to swell the tertiary sector of the mining centres of Siglo XX-Catavi (as bearers), or the seasonal migrations towards the sugar plantations in Santa Cruz.

If it is well organized, the cabildo establishes a rota system whereby each household in turn must send a worker when a road or water-pipe has to be repaired, or some similar job has to be done, or otherwise pay a day's wage (often in the form of a bottle or two of aguardiente) as a substitute. Ironically, but by no means fortuitously, this practice is particularly common in the Huaca area, where migrants from neighbouring Colombia have deprived Indian communities of their commonly-held land by various forms of chicanery.

Further ethnohistorical research will be necessary to resolve this question. Clearly, where there exists a territorial margin into which the family may expand, the use of a concept such as minifundio would be inappropriate. Where spare land does not exist, however, further mechanisms for the redistribution of land and population may come into play. Marriage strategies, 41 Tristan Plait a 1 2 3 4- o T PA ,A = OP T O PA = Ov p - with access to Puna land v = with access to Valley land Fig. 4. The generational cycles of inter-zonal marriages for example, may be designed to acquire land far away from a man's birthplace.

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