Ecological and environmental physiology of fish by F. Brian Eddy, Richard D. Handy
By F. Brian Eddy, Richard D. Handy
Fish have advanced to colonise nearly all types of aquatic habitat and this present day they're a highly different workforce of over 25,000 species. The evolution of this nice range of species has led to a myriad of options to the calls for posed via the aquatic surroundings.
Ecological and Environmental body structure of Fish presents a present and accomplished evaluate of fish body structure to illustrate how residing fish functionality of their surroundings. As with different books within the sequence, the emphasis is at the specified physiological features of the fish, yet with purposes to questions of large relevance in physiological ecology. A initial bankruptcy introduces the aquatic atmosphere and provides a normal description of fish biology, evolution, and taxonomy. next sections speak about the actual difficulties of dwelling in water, existence in severe environments, recommendations for learning fish ecophysiology, and destiny examine directions.
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Additional resources for Ecological and environmental physiology of fish
2008) that the genome of Amphioxus approximates to the ancestral chordate genome, perhaps supporting the idea that the ancestor may have been a primitive jawless ﬁshes-like creature. The geological record has provided virtually no clues as to the origin of ﬁshes and when fossil ﬁshes ﬁrst appeared, about 350 million years ago, the major groups had already separated, become established, and diversiﬁed. , 2009) in one line of the vertebrate ancestry. It has been suggested that such events could be Tetrapods Lobe-ﬁnned ﬁshes Bony Vertebrates Vertebrates Jawed Vertebrates Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Fishes Chordates 22 Mammals Birds Amphibians Ray-ﬁnned ﬁshes 6 Coelacanths 2 Basal ray-ﬁnned ﬁshes 26 840 51 Cartilaginous ﬁshes 970 Jawless vertebrates 108 Cephalochordates 300 5 504 Lungﬁshes Urochordates 400 16 400 Reptiles Teleosts 500 4 830 (MYA) 1600 30 Current Opinion in Genetics & Development Fig.
Three groups are considered to have diverged from the main evolutionary line. First, the Osteoglossomorpha, a freshwater group inhabiting tropical rivers and characterized by possession of a bony tongue. Included in this group is the Amazonian arapaima, the largest freshwater ﬁshes attaining 2–3 m in length. Also in this group are the African knife ﬁshes and elephant ﬁshes which are adapted for life in muddy freshwater streams. They produce weak electric ﬁelds to navigate and seek prey. The second group contains eels and eel-like like ﬁshes 36 Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Fishes (Elopomorpha), a surprisingly diverse group containing about 600 species, characterized by similarity of their larvae.
The third WGD occurred in the teleost ancestor (see also Chapter 5). From Ravi and Venkatesh (2008), with permission from Elsevier. , 2008). About 350 million years ago, the major groups of ﬁshes the Agnathans, Selachians, and bony ﬁshes were already established and had diversiﬁed into specialized types. Today the Agnathans (Cyclostomes) are represented by highly specialized jawless ﬁshes, the lampreys and hagﬁsh, but many aspects of their evolutionary relationships remain unresolved. In the Silurian and lower Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Fishes 23 Devonian, Agnathans were widespread, diversiﬁed, and their fossil record reveals much about them.