Diving and Subaquatic Medicine, Fourth edition by Edmonds, Carl
By Edmonds, Carl
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Extra info for Diving and Subaquatic Medicine, Fourth edition
Oxygen (atomic weight 16, molecular weight 32) is the essential constituent of all breathing mixtures. 2 ATA to avoid hypoxia. At higher partial pressures oxygen causes oxygen toxicity. 8 ATA results in central nervous system effects. 8 ATA. 8 ATA oxygen has little effect on the respiratory centre, and minute volume will remain close to normal. Oxygen is vasoactive; high oxygen tensions cause vasoconstriction. Nitrogen (atomic weight 14, molecular weight 28) is the major component of air, about 79 per cent.
Another pressure problem occurs when a diver dives and then either travels by air or ascends into mountains. Some dives and ascents may require the diver to pause at the surface if he is to avoid DCS. This problem is encountered especially by a diver tourist who wants to fly home after his last dive, and is also encountered when a diver with DCS has to be transported. There may be an increase in manifestations of DCS when the pressure is decreased, even by a small amount. PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT Heat Diving and exposure to high pressures changes the heat transfer from a diver's body.
70 1 2 1 gm/cm (1 cm H20) replacement for helium. The reluctance to use it is rln/=» tr» flo-arc r»£ £»vr»1rkcir»n Knt tl-nc /™or» K/a -r\r(*\T(*r\t(*r\ if the oxygen level does not exceed 4 per cent; such a mixture is breathable at depths in excess of 30 metres. Hypoxia can be prevented by changing to another gas near the surface. Hydrogen causes similar thermal and speech distortion problems to helium. RECOMMENDED READING Bennett, RB. H. (eds) (1993) The Physiology and Medicine of Diving. 4th edn.