Diversity and Pluralism in Islam: Historical and by Z. Hirji

By Z. Hirji

For greater than fourteen hundred years Muslims have held a number of and diverging perspectives approximately their spiritual culture. This divergence encompasses such concerns as authority; ritual perform; political strength; legislations and governance; civic lifestyles; and the shape and content material of person and communal expressions in their religion. Over the centuries Muslims have usually debated those concerns among themselves. in spite of the fact that, regardless of the awesome variety of the Islamic culture, and the plurality of understandings approximately Islam, Muslims are frequently and erroneously portrayed as internally homogeneous and dogmatic. this crucial ebook demanding situations such propositions via studying the ways that concerns of universal main issue to Muslims were mentioned by means of them and tested. the quantity explores the methods through which Muslims build notions of the self, the opposite and group, and addresses the socio-cultural instruments that they hire in so doing. providing contributions through world-class students, variety and Pluralism in Islam applies insights from various disciplines, together with anthropology, heritage, literature, political idea, comparative literature and Islamic reviews. it will likely be of intensive curiosity to students and scholars in those fields, in addition to to all people with a major curiosity in Muslim societies and cultures.

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Seventy-two were killed at the martyrdom of the Prophet’s grandson, al-Husayn, at Karbala. ” They said: “We do not know”. ”. ’ The distance to hell was not dissimilar; a tradition relates: ‘We were with the Messenger of God and heard the sound of something falling ... The Messenger of God said, “That was a stone that was thrown into Hell seventy years ago and it was still falling into Hell until it reached its bottom”. ’19 Interestingly, a Shiʿi source says that God’s ‘Greatest Name’ has seventy-three letters, of which Imam Muhammad al-Baqir knew seventy-two letters.

This essay is not written to celebrate the power of wine to dissolve sectarian differences, although such an essay might be a more challenging task. But I think we should pause for a moment at the name of Omar Khayyam, the Iranian Muslim mathematician and astronomer who died in the early twelfth century. Omar Khayyam’s scepticism was as thrilling to his medieval contemporaries as it was to our Victorian forefathers who first made him a figure of interest in the West. Matthew Arnold, for example, was scandalized to find out how much he resonated with Omar Khayyam’s scepticism.

Thus, Allan’s case study on doctrinal pluralism in Islamic art states from the outset that, in the almost centurylong discourse of Western European scholarship on ‘Islamic Art’, virtually no scholarly study has looked at how the artistic products of Muslims can be distinguished on the basis of doctrinal difference. Jaques, on the other hand, works through the complex architecture of biographical literature generated by Muslim historians in order to determine how it was that Shafiʿi and Hanafi madhabs (schools of jurisprudence) came to distinguish themselves from each other in the process of their early formation.

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