Deparametrization and Path Integral Quantization of by Claudio Simeone

By Claudio Simeone

During this publication, homogeneous cosmological versions whose Hamilton-Jacobi equation is separable are deparametrized by means of turning their motion practical into that of a typical gauge procedure. Canonical gauges imposed at the gauge approach are used to outline a world part time by way of the canonical variables of the minisuperspaces. The process sincerely exhibits how the geometry of the constraint floor restricts the alternative of time. the implications that this has for direction vital quantization are mentioned, and the transition amplitude is got for relativistic isotropic versions, relativistic anisotropic versions (Kantowski-Sachs and Taub) and isotropic string cosmologies. a whole bankruptcy concerning the program of the deparametrization software to the standard canonical quantization scheme is additionally integrated.

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Of S, which is proportional to m2 , lies in the description of very hard units, which is the case of large units with interactions restricted at the surface such as colloids. Colloidal aggregation is an obvious limit case. At low temperature (T < 0, 1 = Tc ), where the temperature unit is the depth ε of the pair potential well as in the following, whatever the atomic stiffness S be, a dendrite fractal behavior is observed after a long diffusion time. So the 2D aggregation is mainly controlled by diffusion at such low temperatures.

In molecular dynamics, interactions and initial ground state are also defined as well as a unit time, and atomic motions are defined from solving equations of motions with some Langevin random part which takes into account thermal motion. So this method considers a regular variation with time and is well fitted for following the time evolution of thermal excitations at the expense of computer time. This method takes into account kinetic energy and can be used up to melting point with realistic results [166].

And in this experiment, only the external, surface skin of these domains is viewed. So the real problem of the magnetic structure of 3D nanoparticles is still open. Thus the interest in numerical simulations is quite obvious. Moreover, there are numerous numerical approaches of magnetic stable configurations which also lead to dynamics. That is why we are studying them before analyzing the experimental data on dynamics within a magnetic nanoparticle. , the Langevin equation for magnetic variation [31], and a standard numerical approach of micromagnetism based on the resolution of the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation December 17, 2015 12:53 PSP Book - 9in x 6in 01-Jean-Claude-Levy-c01 Experimental Status with damping: OOMMF [45].

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