Cryocoolers: Part 1: Fundamentals by Graham Walker
By Graham Walker
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Extra info for Cryocoolers: Part 1: Fundamentals
This is perceived as an increase in the temperature. Temperature is measured on four scales: Centigrade, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, and Rankine. Two useful temperatures are the ice-point and boiling point of water at atmospheric pressures. These correspond to ooc and 100°C for the Centigrade scale or 32°F and 212°F for the Fahrenheit scale. 15°C. This is taken as the starting point or zero datum of the Kelvin scale. The Centigrade unit is the same as the Kelvin unit of temperature change. 67°F. This is taken as the zero datum of the Rankine scale.
9) pV=ZmRT Z is the coefficient of compressibility, a factor which varies widely as the condition of the gas changes. It is determined experimentally. More complicated equations of state exist, or the properties may be determined experimentally and summarized in tables of thermodynamic data. Properties of state for various fluids have been measured over many levels of temperature and pressure. The results are best presented in tabular form called thermodynamic tables. The tables are usually in two parts.
SAMSO-TR-73-74, AD No. 755 780, NTIS, Springfield, Virginia. Higa, W. N. (1965). " Cryogenic Techno/. 8, 203-209, (July-August). , and Wiebe, E. (1977). 5 Kelvin. Appl. of Closed Cycle Cryocooler to Small Superconducting Devices", Proc. of Conf. , pp. 99-108 (issued as NBS Spec. Pub. 508, April1978). Jensen, H. , Nast, T. , Glassford, A. P. , Vernon, R. , and Ekern, W. F. (1971). " Summary Report, Report No. NASA CR 115192, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, NTIS Accession No. , Sunnyvale, California) (February 1971), See also, same authors, same title: (a) System Review Report, NASA CR 115191, NTIS N71-37105 (May 1970); (b) Final Report, NASA CR 114920, NTIS N71-20279 (February 1971).