Coral Reef Ecology by Professor Dr. Yuri I. Sorokin (auth.)

By Professor Dr. Yuri I. Sorokin (auth.)

Coral reef groups are one of the most complicated, mature and effective ecosystems in the world. Their job led to the production of immense lime buildings. Being tremendous efficient and having the functionality of a strong biofilter, coral reefs play an incredible function in worldwide biogeochemical procedures and within the replica of nutrients assets in tropical marine areas. All elements of coral reef technological know-how are coated systematically and at the foundation of a holistic environment strategy. The geological historical past of coral reefs, their geomorphology in addition to biology together with neighborhood constitution of reef biota, their useful features, physiological points, biogeochemical metabolism, strength stability, environmental difficulties and administration of assets are handled in detail.

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The vertical stratification there is also slight or absent. The 44 Reef Environments difference in to even at depths of 40-60 m does not exceed 1-2° and even this change starts from depths of 20-30m downwards. Some decrease of to of the deep lagoonal waters is caused by the inflow of the deeper cold water during the tide (Andrews 1983b). The lime reef constructions are subjected to powerful hydrodynamic stress, which partially destroys them and enhances the processes of erosion. But in its interactions with the reef this physical stress also stimulates many important biological processes, induces the development of defence reactions in reefal flora and fauna.

These are the Caribbean reefs, those of the Philippines and of the southern GBR (Stoddard 1969; Woodley et al. 1981; Kjerfve and Dinnel 1983). In these regions the strong tropical cyclones with pressure in the centre of 945-955 mm are recurring every 3-10 years. After the passing of such a cyclone with waves more than 10 m high near the reef edge not only the ramose but also the massive corals are swept off the outer reef slope and flat. On the flat and in the lagoon huge ridges of rubble appear.

Sect. 2). Interaction of the ring reef with incoming oceanic current results in the formation of a series of rings. When going downstream their diameter increases. They cease at a distance 10-15 times exceeding the diameter of the ring reef itself (Fig. 4). The formation of these rings supports the development of plankton and influences the distribution of pelagic fish in shelf areas off atolls and small high islands (Alldredge and Hamner 1980; Hamner and Hauri 1981). The oceanic currents as well as the local tidal- and wind-driven surface currents support a permanent flow of plankton over and through the communities of benthic planktonovorous animals including corals and planktonovorous fish, being thus one of the most important factors of trophodynamics in the reef ecosystem (Williams et al.

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