Consumer Behavior and Energy Conservation: A Policy-Oriented by Peter Ester (auth.)
By Peter Ester (auth.)
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Extra info for Consumer Behavior and Energy Conservation: A Policy-Oriented Experimental Field Study on the Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions Promoting Residential Energy Conservation
Edney, 1980; Ester, 1977, 1979a, 1979b; Ester & Leeuw, 1978; Ester & van der Meer, 1979a, 1982; Leeuw & Ester, 1981; van der Meer, 1981; Visser, 1980). In addition to this particular application the theory has proven its strength in explaining a number of policy frictions in the collective sector (cf. Buchanan, 1968; Ester Frohlich & Oppenheimer, 1978; Leeuw, 1981; Lulofs, 1978a, 1978b; & Leeuw, 1978; Ultee, 1977; van den Doel, 1980). Essential in Olson's theory is the distinction between private goods and collective goods.
See also van Raaij (1981) 9. According to Catton, Jr. and Dunlap (1980) the ecological question calls for a flndamental shift in existing sociological paradigms. "The changes ecological conditions confronting hunan societies seriously challenge sociology, - 17 for the discipline developed in an era when hunans seemed exempt from ecological constraints. Disciplinary traditions and asslDptions that evolved during the age of exuberant growth imbued sociology with a world view or paradigm which impedes recognition of the societal significance of current ecological realities.
As this conclusion is reached by ~ herdsman, the logic of the commons dic- tates each herdsman to expand his herd which, as a consequence leads to overgrazing in the long r1D1 and, ultimately, to the ruin of both the pasture and shepherds themselves. nTherein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit - in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination towards which all men rush, each persuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons.