Conditions for Partnership in International Economic by C. Fred Bergsten

By C. Fred Bergsten

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With widened horizons in the thirteenth century as a consequence of the Fourth Crusade, Venice and later Genoa established a colonial empire of trading posts in the former Byzantine Empire; their merchants and ships entered the Black Sea and in its eastern ports made contacts with Asian merchants, who had been able to travel so far thanks to the peace that prevailed in the Mongol empire. The Muslim Middle East was thus left out of the loop. A few Westerners traveled as far as China—the best known being the Venetian Marco Polo, who wrote his Book of Marvels after returning from a long stay in China (1275–1291).

Rural population in several areas actually reached levels close to those of the eighteenth century, but the Celtic fringes of the British Isles, Scandinavia, and most of east-central and eastern Europe retained low densities. This increased population was mobile; it is a serious mistake to believe in the immobility of the medieval (and early modern) peasantry. Many people migrated to the towns and to the “frontier” (in the American sense) in eastern Europe and elsewhere. This stimulated intra-European trade, and all in all the rise of a market economy was a direct response to population growth.

Often interdependent, they as a whole made it possible to feed many more people. One was the heavy-wheeled plow, with its asymmetrical iron share, moldboard, and coulter, which had been invented in southern Germany. It made deep furrows and turned the sod over and was capable of breaking and turning heavy but fertile soils, which had previously been left uncultivated. 13 The efficiency of the plow was much increased by the substitution, again mainly in the north, of horses for oxen as draft animals.

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