Condensed Matter Theories by John W. Clark, Srinivas Gazula (auth.), S. Fantoni, S.
By John W. Clark, Srinivas Gazula (auth.), S. Fantoni, S. Rosati (eds.)
The XIV overseas Workshop on Condensed subject Theories has been held on the Elba foreign Physics middle (EIPC), Marciana Marina, Isola d'Elba, Italy, from 18-23 June, 1990. The Workshop all started in 1977 in Sao Paolo, Brazil, because the 1st Pan American Workshop on Condensed subject Theories, with the aim of bringing jointly scientists from the Western nations, operating in lots of diverse issues of Condensed topic Theories, to facilitate exchanges of rules and applied sciences from assorted parts in addition to collaborations one of the scientists. the subsequent 5 Workshops have been held at Trieste, Italy (1978), in Buenos Aires, Argentina ( 1979), in Caracas, Venezuela (1980), in Mexico urban, Mexico (1981) and in St. Louis, Missouri, U. S. A. (1982). Given the foreign measurement reached by way of the Workshop, it was once determined to increase it into a global Workshop, which was once held for the 1st time in Altenberg, Germany (1983). the subsequent variants happened in Granada, Spain (1984), San Francisco, California, U. S. A. (1985), Argonne, Illinois, U. S. A. (1986), Oulu, Finland (1987), Taxco, Mexico (1988) and Campos do Jordao, Brasil (1989). Many scientists have contributed to the improvement of many of the variants of the paintings store. besides the fact that, a specific point out should be made to Profs. Manuel de Llano and Angel Plastino who at first proposed the Workshop and carried it ahead, and to Prof. J . W. Clark, whose efforts were of great support to its contemporary developments.
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Even so, some remarkable results were obtained, which encourage a further exploration of the potential of this new way of looking at the nuclear world. The behavior of layered, feedforward nets containing substantial, but not large, numbers of hidden neurons is summarized below. These nets were trained to distinguish between stable and unstable nuclides, using large (2: 75%) and reasonably homogeneous portions of the chosen nuclear data base. • * * * • • • • • • The dominant feature learned by the 'student' nets is that most nuclides are unstable.
In the first place, if we consider the same s = ~ XXZ Hamiltonian but for lattices in two or more dimensions, almost no exact results are known. In particular, the Bethe-ansatz technique of solution which was so useful in I-d has never been successfully extended to provide exact solutions for the case d > 1. Similarly, the Hamiltonian of Eq. (3a) or Eq. (3b) is not integrable for the case s = 1, even in I-d, and exact results are not known. Nevertheless, there has been enormous interest in the last few years in the quantum spin chains with s = 1 and with various interactions between the spins, after the remarkable conjecture of Haldane 29 in 1983 concerning the isotropic Heisenberg model (L'l = 1) for this case.
The state curves seem to depend almost entirely upon the thermalization rule rather than the underlying system Hamiltonian, which contradicts many of the current beliefs concerning critical phenomena. at any non-zero temperature ought to be of the continuous form, since we intuitively expect the local spins to gradually "forget" the orientation of their polarization as they get knocked around thermally. This is not a problem since both mechanisms (and any other mechanisms that might come to mind) can be easily treated simultaneously in a given calculation, subject only to the constraint that the overall effect of a bath interaction is to create a local normalized spin state.