Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: Basic Research for by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and
By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics
This publication identifies possibilities, priorities, and demanding situations for the sphere of condensed-matter and fabrics physics. It highlights fascinating contemporary clinical and technological advancements and their societal effect and identifies awesome questions for destiny study. issues diversity from the technological know-how of recent expertise to new fabrics and constructions, novel quantum phenomena, nonequilibrium physics, tender condensed topic, and new experimental and computational tools.
The e-book additionally addresses structural demanding situations for the sphere, together with nurturing its highbrow power, retaining a fit mix of huge and small study amenities, enhancing the field's integration with different disciplines, and constructing new methods for scientists in academia, govt laboratories, and to interact. it will likely be of curiosity to scientists, educators, scholars, and policymakers.
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Additional info for Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: Basic Research for Tomorrow's Technology
If the fluid is spread out (like gravy in a sauce pan, for example), convection cells may appear and arrange themselves over the surface of the liquid in a regular pattern of squares or hexagons. This phenomenon is commonly seen in the kitchen. Theoretically, the behavior of such a fluid is completely described by a set of well-known equations (named after Navier and Stokes) derived directly from Newton’s laws of motion. Indeed, this theory works quite well in practice until the driving force—in this case, the heat—is turned up so high that the fluid motion becomes turbulent.
In artificial preparations these assemblies can form “complex fluids” whose morphology is easily modulated by changing temperature, dilution, or electrical currents. Digital watches and portable computer monitors depend on this modulation in their liquid-crystal displays. The structure, and hence the optical properties, of the liquid crystal can be altered by small voltages applied across the fluid. Flashlight batteries now come with liquid-crystal testers that respond to the heat generated by a resistor.
The technological impact of such advances is perhaps best illustrated in the areas of condensed-matter and materials physics discussed in this chapter, which will examine selected examples of electronic, magnetic, and optical materials and phenomena that are key to the convergence of computing, communication, and consumer electronics. Technology based on electronic, optical, and magnetic materials is driving the information age through revolutions in computing and communications. With the miniaturization made possible by the invention of the transistor and the integrated circuit, enormous computing and communication capabilities are becoming readily available worldwide.