Complete Idiot's Guide to Philosophy 2003 by Jay Ph.D. Stephenson

By Jay Ph.D. Stephenson

You are no fool, in fact. you consider your place, your loved ones, and the way to get to the workplace on time. but if it involves figuring out what lifestyles is all approximately, you do not know your Plato out of your Kierkegaard. do not cease looking the solutions! the full Idiot's consultant to Philosophy indicates you the way the tips of the world's nice thinkers may help make feel of your individual fact as we head towards the twenty-first century. during this whole Idiot's consultant, you get:

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People in the East, on the other hand, are more collectivistic in general; they tend to think of themselves in terms of their relationships with others. ) A number of philosophers have thought about individualism. One of them is nineteenthcentury French political philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville. De Tocqueville said that individualism is especially prominent in the United States where there is a democratic political system. Democratic values like “freedom” and “equality” reflect Western individualism.

Going Up: Induction Another important logical process is induction— a way of making generalizations about things. Induction, like deduction, moves from premises to conclusions. But unlike deduction, induction leads to conclusions that may not be true even if the premises are true. Inductive conclusions are only probable, not certain. For example, if we want to know what color crows can be and we go out and find a good number of crows and all of them are black, it’s a pretty good bet that all crows are black.

For Marx, ideology develops in response to economic forces. Descartes is thinking about knowing from inside the mind, asking what the mind can do entirely on its own; Marx is thinking about knowing from outside society, asking how economic forces shape the way people think. In this chapter, we’ve talked about how different philosophers deal with the issue of epistemology—through reason, experience, logic, and dialectic. We’ll come back to these ideas when we look more closely at particular philosophies.

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