Comparative Placentation: Structures, Functions and by Peter Wooding, Graham Burton

By Peter Wooding, Graham Burton

Technology produces interesting puzzles: why is there any such variety of placental constructions whilst different mammalian organs are so structurally uniform ? Why and the way did the various placental constructions evolve ? Comparative placental stories can facilitate the identity of the typical components in placental progress, differentiation and serve as and their relevance to attainable evolutionary pathways. Comparative Placentation is the one ebook providing up to date facts illustrating the nice number of constitution yet uniform functionality of vertebrate placentas from fish to guy. this data is vital for number of appropriate types to enquire specific functional difficulties of impaired or anomalous development in human and animal placentation. the original number of the simplest mild and electron micrographs from the final thirtyfive years which accurately illustrate the structural diversity in each one taxon, make the booklet the main authoritative booklet during this box and an essential resource of knowledge for a person on reproductive body structure, anatomy and drugs.

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The definitive placental structures may thus be defined as those found in the main placenta close to term. Accessory placental structures should also be considered although they do not normally constitute a significant proportion of the total area. In the bovine placentomal placenta, for example, the interplacentomal area represents less than 2% of the total area available for exchange at term (Baur 1972) but it may have an essential functional role. 5 Types of Yolk Sac Placentation Four basic yolk sac types can be characterized by reference to the origin of the fetal cellular layers they present to the maternal tissues.

It has been suggested (Billington and Bell 1983) that MHC antigen expression is obligately linked to cell division so that formation of a non-dividing layer would be one way of eliminating this expression with its attendant hazards. Several advantages of a fetal syncytium in a placental context have been suggested: its plastic invasiveness; its synthetic versatility and capacity to secrete directly into the maternal compartment; its ability to form a continuous selective barrier which can include a considerable degree of regional differentiation or attenuation; and its immunological unresponsiveness and its inability to proliferate even if nucleus- containing fragments are released into maternal blood as they are in the human (Covone et al.

6 ‘Decidual’ Structures in Non-Haemochorial Placentation Extensive decidual cell development characterizes haemochorial placentation, but in some synepitheliochorial and endotheliochorial placentas specialized cells originating from uterine stromal cells are consistently incorporated throughout the definitive placental structure at the feto-maternal interface. The best example is the frequently binucleate giant cells in the cat placenta (Fig. 8a). Much smaller less obvious cells are also present in an equivalent position in the dog (Amoroso 1952; Mossman 1987).

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