Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics: An International by Ernst Mayr (auth.), Kurt Benirschke (eds.)

By Ernst Mayr (auth.), Kurt Benirschke (eds.)

Ten years in the past a symposium on Cytotaxonomy 'was held in London (Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 169:110, 1958) during which a primary try used to be made to assemble numerous disciplines to debate advances of mammalian cytogenetics and to place them into right context with the sciences of evolution and taxonomy. The introductory comments via \V. B. Turrill to that symposium, primarily an admonishment to be tolerant of the quick­ comings of our respective disciplines, will be a splendid commence­ ning to this convention as ,,'ell. even though, the assembly held at Hanover was once conceived extra alongside the traces of feedback made via R. B. Seymour Se,,'ell in his presidential deal with to an identical society: "It has been acknowledged that scientists during this look for fact are these days an excessive amount of excited by the buildup of evidence, and make too little use in their imagina­ tion of their makes an attempt to give an explanation for such evidence as they've got accrued. " (In "The continental waft thought and the distribution of the Copepoda," ibid. 166:149, 1956. ) \\Tith this as a historical past, years in the past we held the 1st of a sequence of loosely-structured meetings on reproductive failure within the stress-free surroundings of this small New England collage group. The manu­ scripts of that assembly were released (Comparative elements of Re­ effective Failure, Springer-Verlag long island Inc. , 1967).

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Additional info for Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics: An International Conference at Dartmouth Medical School Hanover, New Hampshire, July 29—August 2, 1968

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We should realize that a centromere in light microscopy is observed as an achromatic region. An achromatic region is defined only when there are chromatic regions at both sides. When it does not carry visible chromatin, how can we decide that it is not there? Another possibility is that two centromeres may simply fuse. If a translocation scheme must be entertained, the breaks may occur on the submicroscopic "short arm" of both acrocentrics, and a translocation results in a biarmed chromosome with two centromeres.

Summary In recent years, direct products of structural genes came under close scrutiny, and as a result, it was realized that genetic redundancy created by gene duplication rather than allelic mutations at already existing gene loci have been the major force of evolution. , 1968). Not only the original X~linkage, but some of the autosomal linkage groups of the common ancestor may have been preserved by diverse mammals of today. Thus, diversity of karyotypes displayed by placental mammals can be regarded as more apparent than real.

Jainchill and C. Stenius: The creeping vole (Microtus oregoni) as a gonosomic mosaic. I. The OY/XY constitution of the male. Cytogenetics 2:232, 1963. ---, 1- Poole and I. Gustaysson: Sex-linkage of erythrocyte glucose-6-phosph ate dehydrogenase in two species of wild hares. Science 150:1737, 1965. - - - , D_ \Vol£ and N. B. Atkin: Evolution from fish to mammals by gene duplication. Hereditas 59:169, 1968. : Genetic regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis. J. Cell PhysioI. 67 (SuppI. I): 77, 1966.

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