Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An introduction by Prof. Robert S.P. Beekes, Dr. Michiel de Vaan

By Prof. Robert S.P. Beekes, Dr. Michiel de Vaan

This e-book provides a finished advent to Comparative Indo-European Linguistics. It starts off with a presentation of the languages of the relations (from English and the opposite Germanic languages, the Celtic and Slavic languages, Latin, Greek and Sanskrit via Armenian and Albanian) and a dialogue of the tradition and foundation of the Indo-Europeans, the audio system of the Indo-European proto-language.The reader is brought into the character of language swap and the tools of reconstruction of older language levels, with many examples (from the Indo-European languages). a whole description is given of the sound adjustments, which makes it attainable to keep on with the starting place of different Indo-European languages step-by-step. this is often by means of a dialogue of the improvement of the entire morphological different types of Proto-Indo-European. The ebook provides the newest in scholarly insights, just like the laryngeal and glottalic concept, the accentuation, the ablaut styles, and those are systematically built-in into the remedy. The textual content of this moment variation has been corrected and up to date via Michiel de Vaan. Sixty-six new routines permit the coed to perform the reconstruction of PIE phonology and morphology.

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A. D. Shortly before this time the Slavic languages still formed a unity. The oldest texts comprise Christian literature. The ‘Slav apostles’ Cyrillus and Methodius from Byzantium were responsible for the first texts (translations of the Bible) around the year 865, and adapted the Greek alphabet to the sound system of the language. ╯10). It was only later that the so-called Cyrillic alphabet began to be used, which now, for example — in a somewhat altered form — is used in writing Russian. The language was that of the Slavs around Salonika, thus that of the Bulgarians and the Macedonians.

To our surprise this language was not Iranian, but Indo-Aryan. C. Indo-Iranian is without doubt the most archaic of the Indo-European languages, and to this we may add that it is very well known and that its structure also happens to be very transparent. 2 Tocharian Tocharian was only discovered in 1900 in the Chinese province of Xinjiang (formerly written Sinkiang). ╯5). There are two forms of Tocharian which differ from each other to such an extent that when speaking of Tocharian we can really speak of two languages.

The idea is quite simple: if we find a number of words in which, for example, an e in Greek always corresponds to an a in Sanskrit (as in Skt. jánas, Gr. génos ‘race’ or ‘gender’, or Skt. saptá corresponding to Gr. heptá ‘seven’), it is reasonable to expect the same in other cases too. It has turned out, after a great deal of material had been studied, that such rules always apply and that exceptions can always be explained and are governed by rules themselves, so that they cannot really be called exceptions.

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