Clinical tuberculosis: a practical handbook by Peter D.O. Davies
By Peter D.O. Davies
Clinical Tuberculosis: a realistic guide is a much-needed transportable scientific reference delivering functional tips on key facets of the affliction. This pocket-sized booklet is an invaluable "how-to" instruction manual for the clinician coping with sufferers with tuberculosis in both a well-resourced or poorly-resourced setting.
Packed with case experiences, scientific pearls of knowledge, and useful recommendation, this scientific guide outlines day by day administration of sufferers in addition to therapy and regulate of this crucial and ever-spreading worldwide sickness. A wealth of diagrams and medical photos additionally is helping to make details on hand at a glance.
It is meant for breathing physicians, infectious disorder physicians, public medical experts, and nurses much less conversant in the affliction, in particular in constructing international markets the place TB and HIV are endemic.
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Additional info for Clinical tuberculosis: a practical handbook
2. Other receptors that have been demonstrated to recognise and bind to MTB include complement receptors, the mannose receptor, CD14, surfactant protein A receptors and scavenger receptors. 3. Following the ingestion of MTB within macrophages and dendritic cells, antigens are processed and presented via the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or II molecules to CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, respectively, as well as via other mechanisms. 4. This process initiates a signal transduction pathway that stimulates the production of cytokines and chemokines that attract other innate immune cells to the areas of infection and provides a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems.
CD4+ T cells (T helper cells) release cytokines, inhibit MTB growth in monocytes and initiate and maintain the activity of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses. 2. The vital role of CD4+ T cells is clear in HIV-1 infection as reduced CD4+ T cell number and function is the greatest known risk factor for reactivation of TB or progression of primary infection to active disease. 3. When activated, CD4+ T cells are able to differentiate into TH1 and TH2 cells. 4. Depending on the cytokines produced, a different balance of immune response can be generated.
Sir Robert Koch developed an extract from sterilised MTB (‘old tuberculin’) that was initially thought to be a treatment for the disease. This was later found to be ineffective, but Clemens von Microbiology 25 Pirquet, an Austrian physician, found it could be used as a skin test to detect previous TB infection. b. Originally a drop of tuberculin was placed on the skin and a scratch made through this, but now the technique involves either intradermal injection (Mantoux test) or multiple pronged devices (Heaf test).