Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081-1261 by Michael Angold

By Michael Angold

During this significant learn the subject of "church and society" offers a way of interpreting the situation of the Byzantine Empire at a massive interval of its background, as much as and well past the autumn of Constantinople in 1204.

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It was intrinsically selfish. It offered little to society at large. It seemed to place a barrier between church and society. It upset the natural order. Like all educated Byzantines, Psellus was much concerned with order. The threat to order presented by mysticism was paralleled in his mind by the collapsing order of society. He blamed it in the first instance on the Emperor Constantine Monomachos's willingness to ignore social distinctions: 3" 33 » 33 36 Psellus (ed. Kurtz/Drexl), n, no. 1-4.

Tinnefeld, 'Michael I. Kerullarios, Patriarch von Konstantinopel (1043-1058)', JOB 39(1989), 95-127; M. J. Angold, 'Imperial renewal and orthodox reaction: Byzantium in the eleventh century' in New Constantines. The Rhythm qf Imperial Renewal in Byzantium, 4th-i$th Centuries, ed. P. Magdalino (Aldershot, •994). 23'-46. Conflict and debate 23 Constantine Monomachos loyally. He backed him up during the siege of Constantinople in 1047 by the rebel Leo Tornikios. The only hint of friction between the emperor and the patriarch before the events of 1054 was Cerularius's decision in 1049 to close down the Latin churches in Constantinople.

3-14. •' Sathas, MB, v, 444. *> Ibid, iv, 447-8. 36 The eleventh century oath to his consort, Eudocia Makremvolitissa. She bound herself not to marry again and to support the Doukas succession. The patriarch undertook to anathematise her should she break this oath. In the event, he would release her from this oath on the grounds that it was in the public interest which took precedence over any private agreements. Gossip had it that the patriarch had been tempted by the empress's apparent interest in a marriage with either his brother or his nephew.

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