Chemistry for Pharmacy Students: General, Organic and by Satyajit Sarker, Lutfun Nahar
By Satyajit Sarker, Lutfun Nahar
"This ebook has succeeded in overlaying the elemental chemistry necessities required through the pharmaceutical technology student… the undergraduate reader, be they chemist, biologist or pharmacist will locate this an attractive and beneficial read." –Journal of Chemical Biology, might 2009
Chemistry for Pharmacy Students is a student-friendly advent to the major parts of chemistry required by means of all pharmacy and pharmaceutical technological know-how scholars. The e-book offers a finished review of some of the components of common, organic items chemistry (in relation to drug molecules).
Clearly established to reinforce scholar knowing, the booklet is split into six transparent sections. The publication opens with an summary of basic facets of chemistry and their value to fashionable existence, with specific emphasis on medicinal functions. The textual content then strikes directly to a dialogue of the strategies of atomic constitution and bonding and the basics of stereochemistry and their value to pharmacy- on the subject of drug motion and toxicity. numerous points of aliphatic, fragrant and heterocyclic chemistry and their pharmaceutical value are then lined with ultimate chapters taking a look at natural reactions and their functions to drug discovery and improvement and common items chemistry.
* obtainable creation to the main components of chemistry required for all pharmacy measure courses
* student-friendly and written at a degree compatible for non-chemistry scholars* comprises studying targets before everything of every chapter
* specializes in the actual homes and activities of drug molecules
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Extra info for Chemistry for Pharmacy Students: General, Organic and Natural Product Chemistry
Sigma overlap of a s orbital with a p orbital Pi overlap of two parallel p orbitals Let us consider the formation of s overlap in the hydrogen molecule (H2), from two hydrogen atoms. Each hydrogen atom has one electron, which occupies the 1s orbital. The overlap of two s orbitals, one from each of two hydrogen atoms, forms a s bond. The electron density of a s bond is greatest along the axis of the bond. Since s orbitals are spherical in shape, two hydrogen atoms can approach one another from any direction resulting in a strong s bond.
The energy required for removing an electron from an atom or ion in the gas phase is called ionization energy. 3 CHEMICAL BONDING THEORIES: FORMATION OF CHEMICAL BONDS 25 hydrogen. In general, the first ionization energies increase across a period and decrease down the group. Adding more electrons is easier than removing electrons. It requires a vast amount of energy to remove electrons. Ionic bonds Ionic bonds result from the transfer of one or more electrons between atoms. The more electronegative atom gains one or more valence electrons and hence becomes an anion.
One of the driving forces behind the bonding in an atom is to obtain a stable valence electron configuration. A filled shell is also known as a noble gas configuration. Electrons in filled shells are called core electrons. The core electrons do not participate in chemical bonding. Electrons in shells that are not completely filled are called valence electrons, also known as outer-shell electrons, and the energy level in which they are found is also known as the valence shell. Carbon, for example, with the ground-state electronic configuration 1s2 2s2 2p2, has four outer-shell electrons.