Chemical Sensing with Solid State Devices by Marc J. Madou
By Marc J. Madou
This booklet is a lucid presentation for chemists, electric engineers, floor scientists, and solid-state physicists, of the basics underlying the development of easy and small chemical sensors. the 1st a part of the ebook is a evaluation of the theoretical heritage in stable kingdom physics, chemistry and electronics. Semiconductor and strong electrolyte bulk types are reviewed in addition to solid/gas and solid/liquid interface versions. Membranes and catalysis conception also are lined expansively. the second one half is a dialogue of extra entire sensor units, their crucial elements, an. Read more...
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Extra resources for Chemical Sensing with Solid State Devices
7a shows a schematic of a few grains of powder in contact and shows the space-charge (depletion) region around the surface of each grain and in particular at the intergranular contact. The space-charge region, being depleted of current carriers, is more resistive than the bulk. Thus the intergranular contact 34provides most of the sample resistance. A more , quantitative analysis is possible by use of Fig. 7b, where the band model of the same group of grains is dominated. It is seen that the carriers must overcome a substantial barrier, namely qVs, in order to cross from one grain to another.
As discussed above (Eq. 5), the conductance of an «-type film is given by G = oWt/L or, on the basis of Eq. 23a) where W is the width, t is the thickness and L is the length of the film (or single crystal). For specificity we have considered an «-type semiconductor. This is the conductance if there is no surface barrier and if ΝΌ electrons per unit volume are present throughout the whole thickness. 24) where N' is the number of carriers per unit area of the thin film (N' = NDt). The units of σ5 are mhos and are usually expressed as "mhos per square" because the conductance between the sides of a square plate is independent of the size of the square.
A third possibility would be by direct exchange between neighboring ions, but such exchange would not produce the net charge transfer essential for conductivity. So conductivity occurs because of imperfections in the lattice. The migration or diffusion of ions from imperfection to imperfection is usually modeled as a process of discrete jumps of a particle over an 8 energy barrier (hopping model), as described, for example by Y. Haven. Another model to explain the behavior of solid electrolytes assumes one sublattice that behaves as a liquid and another sublattice with a fixed configuration.