Carbon-based Solids and Materials by Pierre Delhaes(auth.)
By Pierre Delhaes(auth.)
Chapter 1 A ancient evaluate (pages 1–24):
Chapter 2 Polymorphism of Crystalline stages (pages 25–59):
Chapter three Non?Crystalline Carbons (pages 61–96):
Chapter four spinoff Compounds and Analogs (pages 97–126):
Chapter five From fragrant Precursors to the Graphene aircraft (pages 127–167):
Chapter 6 normal Structural homes (pages 169–215):
Chapter 7 digital constructions and Magnetic homes (pages 217–264):
Chapter eight digital delivery homes (pages 265–319):
Chapter nine Optical homes and their functions (pages 321–367):
Chapter 10 Vibrational houses (pages 369–408):
Chapter eleven floor and Interface Phenomena (pages 409–459):
Chapter 12 Chemical Reactivity and floor therapy (pages 461–502):
Chapter thirteen Divided and Porous Carbons (pages 503–552):
Chapter 14 Carbon Filaments, Composites and Heterogenous Media (pages 553–590):
Chapter 15 Use of Carbon fabrics (pages 591–630):
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Extra info for Carbon-based Solids and Materials
Their electronic and vibrational structures are highly dependent on their diameter and chiral angle [SAM 03]; this will be discussed in more detail later. It is noteworthy that the preparation of a specific isomer or the separation between all different chiral species with very similar cohesive energies, is a key problem that is not yet fully resolved. 9. a) Graphene sheet, with the definition of the chiral vector c; and b) examples of three series of SWCNTs (adapted from [SAM 03]) To conclude this presentation it is important to indicate that SWCNTs are not found as isolated and pure entities; they are almost always present as a mixture of configurations aggregated into bundle structures [JOU 97], quite often with a narrow distribution of diameters but with large variations of the chiral angle.
The energy gain is related to the formation of chemical bonds and the subsequent sharing of valence electrons (M. Gerl and J. P. Issi, 1997). 1) and a model, in general based on quantum mechanics, for the type of interactions between particles. There is no absolute calculation but a choice in function of the family of compounds studied, because this calculation is dependant on the reference state used, which in our case will be hexagonal graphite or sometimes cubic diamond. In addition, these calculations are made at absolute zero, which in the expression of the energy or enthalpy of the system corresponding to a negligible value for the entropy.
A translation of half a crystallographic period (length of translation a/√3), is possible implying that half of the carbon atoms are located in the middle of the hexagons of the neighboring planes: this is the classical ABABA stacking of the hexagonal structure. 1) [LIP 42]. Other sequences should be possible without any privileged order or with an ABCD polytype or even with random translations. Such stacking faults would lead to structures called turbostratic, discussed in many studies related to noncrystalline graphitic carbons (see Les carbones, Volume 1, Chapter 1, 1963).