# Boolean Reasoning: The Logic of Boolean Equations by Frank Markham Brown

By Frank Markham Brown

This ebook is set the common sense of Boolean equations. Such equations have been vital within the "algebra of common sense" created in 1847 by way of Boole [12, thirteen] and devel oped by way of others, particularly Schroder [178], within the rest of the 19th century. Boolean equations also are the language in which electronic circuits are defined this present day. Logicians within the 20th century have deserted Boole's equation established common sense in desire of the extra robust predicate calculus. hence, electronic engineers-and others who use Boole's language routinely-remain principally blind to its software as a medium for reasoning. the purpose of this booklet, consequently, is to is to offer a scientific define of the common sense of Boolean equations, within the desire that Boole's equipment may well end up important in fixing present-day difficulties. Logical Languages good judgment seeks to lessen reasoning to calculation. major languages were built to accomplish that item: Boole's "algebra of good judgment" and the predicate calculus. Boole's method used to be to symbolize sessions (e. g. , satisfied creatures, issues efficient of delight) through symbols and to symbolize logical statements as equations to be solved. His formula proved insufficient, despite the fact that, to symbolize usual discourse. a few nineteenth-century logicians, together with Jevons [94], Poretsky [159], Schroder [178], Venn [210], and Whitehead [212, 213], sought a more robust formula in line with ex tensions or transformations of Boole's algebra. those efforts met with merely restricted success.

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**Sample text**

Thus, the Boolean formula (b) + (X2) yields, by removal of a parenthesis-pair, the Boolean formula (b) + X2; the latter, by another removal, yields the Boolean formula b + X2. We are accustomed to thinking of the formulas (g) + (h) and (g)(h) as representing operations (addition and multiplication) in a Boolean algebra. CHAPTER 2. , rules for the formation of strings of symbols. We shall shortly need to view the same formulas as representing functions. In cases where it is necessary to distinguish Boolean formulas from Boolean functions, we indicate that (g) + (h) is a formula by calling it a disjunction (rather than a sum) and that (g) (h) is a formula by calling it a conjunction (rather than a product).

Xl + (g(O, ... )),)(xi + (g(l, ... ))') = xi[(g')(O, .. )] + xl[(g')(1, .. )] + [(g')(O, ... )][(g')(1, .. )] = xi[(g')(O, .. )]. 32), the rule of consensus. x2, ... ) = [xi + f(1,x2, . )]. [Xl + f(0,X2, .. )]. 41) If f: B n ---+ B is an n-variable Boolean function and if a is an element of g: Bn-l---+B defined by B, then the (n - I)-variable function is also a Boolean function (the proof is left as an exercise). Thus the functions f(O, X2, ... , xn) and f(l, X2, . 1 and its corollary are Boolean.

Rudeanu [172, p. 17] defines a useful class of functions, the simple Boolean functions, that lie between the switching functions and general Boolean functions. A function f: Bn __ B, B being an arbitrary Boolean algebra, is a simple Boolean function if f can be represented by a formula built from variables by superposition of the basic operations. Constants, except 0 and 1, are not allowed. 51) 46 CHAPTER 2. BOOLEAN ALGEBRAS where g: Bn---+ Band h: Bn---+ B are Boolean functions such that g(X) ::; heX) for all X E Bn.