Bone Densitometry in Clinical Practice Application and by Sydney Lou Bonnick
By Sydney Lou Bonnick
A thought-provoking e-book in regards to the way forward for bone and joint problems. this is often the last decade of Bone and Joint, a time the place fast advancements in our realizing of those problems take care of sizeable raises in those continual stipulations in the course of the global. by way of drawing on present wisdom and services, the booklet considers destiny eventualities equivalent to the advance of clinical theories, expertise, prevention, prognosis and remedy.
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Extra resources for Bone Densitometry in Clinical Practice Application and Interpretation
A biconcavity index of 80 or less indicated spinal osteoporosis. Combining both the peripheral score and biconcavity index resulted in the total radiologic osteoporosis score, which indicated osteoporosis if the value was 168 or less. RADIOGRAPHIC PHOTODENSITOMETRY Much of the development of the modern techniques of SPA, DPA and DXA actually came from early work on the X-ray-based method of photodensitometry (17). In photodensitometry, broad beam X-ray exposures of radiographs were obtained and the density of the skeletal image was quantified using a scanning photodensitometer.
PA DXA studies of the spine are not immune to these effects either but lateral DXA spine studies can be performed to overcome these limitations. Studies of the spine in the lateral projection were never available with DPA. The ability to make site-specific predictions of fracture risk of the spine and proximal femur or global fracture risk predictions with DPA was established in prospective trials (19,39). Like SPA, DPA is rarely performed in the United States now, because of the availability of DXA with its technological improvements.
Radiation exposure is extremely low for all types of DXA scans. 1 mrem (65). DXA has been used in prospective studies to predict fracture risk. In one of the largest studies of its kind, DXA studies of the proximal femur were demonstrated to have the greatest short-term predictive ability for hip fracture compared to measurements at other sites with SPA or DPA (19). DXA central devices are called “pencil-beam” or “fan-array” scanners. 12 Examples of fan-array DXA scanners are the Lunar Expert® and Prodigy™ and the Hologic QDR® 4500 A, QDR® 4500 C, QDR® 4500 W, QDR® 4500 SL, Delphi™, and Discovery™.