Bogs of the Northeast by Charles W. Johnson

By Charles W. Johnson

The 1st well known e-book to accommodate bathrooms in a complete but authoritative demeanour.

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For centuries the Finns have harvested bogs for cloudberries, which they make into a delicate liqueur. More recently the Russians have mined peat in enormous quantities to feed giant electrical generating plants. In the New World bogs provided Native Americans with many plants and plant parts for food, medicines, magic charms, tools, trinkets, and even toys for children. In what was to be- Page 2 come Massachusetts early European settlers quickly learned to prize the bog-grown cranberry and to turn other wetlands into artificial bogs for the cultivation of this crop.

They can be predominantly open (with herbaceous plants), shrubby, or even forested. Like rich fens, their floras often are markedly different from south to north and from inland to maritimes. Many sedges, for example, are not found at all in the north. Also, Atlantic white cedar, also called southern white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides), is relatively abundant in swamps and peatlands in the southern coastal Page 35 plain, becoming less so farther north. In southeastern Maine and New Hampshire, there are only a handful of sites containing Atlantic white cedar.

Overall, it is the physical setting, not the biological one, that determines where peatlands can develop. Given a satisfactory physical setting, peatlands can develop by two different but related processes: lakefill and paludification. Lakefill simply means that a lake or pond is gradually displaced by vegetation in a sequential and generally predictable manner. For example, a typical New England kettlehole bog begins in a glacially made depression in sands and gravels. Water will collect in the depression if the groundwater table is higher than the basin bottom or if sedimentation (clay or perhaps even organics) seals the bottom.

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