Biofuels, Air Pollution, and Health: A Global Review by Kirk R. Smith
By Kirk R. Smith
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Extra resources for Biofuels, Air Pollution, and Health: A Global Review
Chapter 3) 4. Are enough people exposed to these concentrations in such a way that the resulting exposures and doses are significant? (Chapter 4) 5. Do the available data indicate that the consequent health effects are significant? 8. Each box in the figure represents a topic sufficiently well bounded to be investigated separately, while the simple flowchart represents the principal relationships among the topics. It might be noted that there is a set of social, economic, and behavioral factors that impinge on the subject of each box.
The most prevalent situation worldwide, however, is tropical fuelwood burning in a simple cookstove consisting of three rocks or a simple open hearth made from clay or bricks. In spite of these limitations, however, a number of conclusions can be drawn about the probable emission magnitudes and the factors that affect the emissions resulting from the operation of relevant fuel/stove combinations. In this chapter, the principal types of pollutants and their emission factors will be discussed for the fuel/stove combination of most interest-the simple open stove burning wood.
Exposure present 1. Damage to alveolar epithelium 2. Peripheral respiratory unit constriction 3. ) exposure present. May lead to release of proteolytic enzymes and eventual emphysema and alevolar destruction Long-term retention: 1. React with tissue to cause local effects 2. Remain in tissue (inert) 3. Transported to lymph nodes Short-term retention: Phagocytized and transported to terminal bronchioles with subsequent clearance from tracheobronchial compartment • Modified from USNRC (1979). , 1981).