Bioenergetics Of Aquatic Animals by Albert Lucas, Jennifer J. Watson

By Albert Lucas, Jennifer J. Watson

This article applies bioenergetics to aquatic animals and explores its function in aquaculture and fisheries technological know-how. It seeks to supply a compact account of bioenergetics in aquaculture and make clear difficulties encountered within the components of fisheries and

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2). Respiration The respiration of an organism can be quantified by measuring oxygen consumption per unit of time under defined conditions of temperature, oxygen pressure in water, motor activity and feeding activity of the animal. Taking into consideration these last two factors, three types of measure are distinguished: 42 Bioenergetics of Organisms: Concepts • Rs—standard or resting respiration rate (no feeding, no motor activity); • Rf —frespiration rate after feeding; • Ra —respiration rate during motor activity.

These values, the only ones that can be measured, cannot be added to establish R. 3: • RS —standard respiration rate; • RF —respiration rate due to intake of a meal; • RA—respiration rate due to motor activity. In this case, the total respiration rate is the sum: R=RS+RF+RA. In fact, RF corresponds to the specific dynamic action (see below, p. 44) and RA to scope for activity defined by Fry (1947) as the respiration rate during motor activity minus the standard respiration rate. If we insist on the differences between the measures and components of R, that is to say in our nomenclature between Rf and RF, Ra and RA, it is because there are many imprecisions in this subject in the literature.

As this ATP is provided by mitochondria, their location in the cell is by no means random but follows a defined architecture. In striated muscle, mitochondria are adjacent to the striations and are arranged in a regular pattern. The structures that produce and utilize ATP are closely juxtaposed (Lehninger, 1978). In certain muscles, mitochondria are extremely abundant. For example, in Antarctic fish the red aerobic muscles are made up of myofibrils entirely surrounded by mitochondria the volume of which represents 30–60% of that of the muscle.

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