Astrophysics,Part C, Radio Observations (Methods of by M.L. Meeks

By M.L. Meeks

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S . Weinreb, A. H . Barrett, M . L. Meeks, and J . C. Henry, Nature (London) 200, 829 ( I 963). ' A. R. Thompson, M . P. Hughes, and R . S . J . Suppl. Ser. 23, 323 (1971 1. P. G . Mezger and B. Hoglund, Asfrophys. J . 147, 490 (1967). TABLE I. 8- and 14-GHz lines of formaldehyde which are in absorption. The H and OH lines are detected both in emission and absorption. The OH and H 2 0 are the known maser lines. 28 4. SINGLE-ANTENNA OBSERVATIONS In general, atoms or molecules having transitions with long lifetimes compared to the collisional rate would be expected to come into equilibrium with the kinetic temperature of the surrounding gas.

Fisher, Astrophys. J . 144, 559 (1966). R. D. Dissertation, Univ. of Illinois (1969) (unpublished). l 6 A. Hewish, Mon. Not. Roy. Asrron. 123, 167 (1961). 2. 1. Brief Historical Survey of Early Spectral-Line Measurements The study of spectral lines in radio astronomy began in 1951 with the detection of neutral hydrogen from interstellar space at a wavelength of 21 cm. Even after the discovery of many other atomic and molecular lines in the years since 1951, the 21-cm line continues to be studied at many observatories, principally because of its ubiquitous nature in the galaxy and in external galaxies, and also because of the wealth of information contained in the velocity structure of the line.

4. In this situation, the receiver was Dicke switched between two orthogonal concentric feeds in order to obtain directly one of the polarized intensities (the Stokes parameter S,, sometimes referred to as Q). The * J. Dickel, Icarus 6, 417 (1967). 3. 7-m (140-ft) telescope of the NRAO [from J. R. Dickel, Zcarus 6, 417 (1967)l. 4. 7-111(140-ft) telescope of the NRAO. The radiometer was switched between two orthogonal feed elements [J. R. Dickel, Zcarus 6, 417 (1967)l. 11 12 4. SINGLE-ANTENNA OBSERVATIONS record shown is the difference output from the switched radiometer and represents the signal received in the feed at the indicated position angle P A minus that in the feed at P A 90".

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