Ascorbic Acid In Aquatic Organisms: Status and Perspectives by Konrad Dabrowski
By Konrad Dabrowski
We're simply starting to become aware of the significance of nutrition C within the healthiness of normal and man-made ecosystems. Synthesis of ascorbic acid is definitely understood, yet algae because the basically resource of ascorbate within the aquatic foodstuff pyramid has now not been explored. there's an increasing box of the tradition of aquatic organisms that call for formulated feeds to most sensible meet their necessities for well-being, progress, and copy. With over a hundred species now cultured for human intake, the query arises as to if we have now trustworthy info for the nutritional wishes for diet C for even a small percent of those organisms. A entire method of the position of diet C on the mobile point in addition to within the aquatic nutrition chains, this publication discusses progress and copy, illness resistance, and toxicology of aquatic organisms. Ascorbic Acid in Aquatic Organisms used to be written because the offshoot of a unique consultation on aquatic organisms and sensible aquaculture on the 1998 global Aquaculture Society (WAS) assembly. This e-book stories the learn already on hand and identifies new instructions for study. it's a specific mix of excellent food examine, ecology, and functional aquaculture (for example brine shrimp enrichment). This interdisciplinary quantity will entice marine fish culturists, aquatic biologists, comparative and evolutionary mobile physiologists, and environmental toxicologists.
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Extra resources for Ascorbic Acid In Aquatic Organisms: Status and Perspectives
195868, 4Ikeda et al. 196328, 5Terada et al. 197830, 6Dabrowski and Hinterleitner 198931, 7Dabrowski 199023. a. ϭ not applicable. e members of the Amiidae family, today extinct, are known from the Upper Jurassic (~200 million years ago). Therefore, as a first approximation, the loss of the AA synthesis pathway in teleosts may have occurred 200–210 million years before present. The presence of GLO activity in the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) and African lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) bears a considerable importance in linking terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates with respect to the evolution of AA biosynthesis.
No GLO activity in Teleostei: Cyprinus carpio. GLO activity reported in Chondrostei: Acipenser transmontanus, A. fulvescens, Polyodon spathula. No GLO activity in Teleostei: Lophiomus setigerus, Paralichthys olivaceus; Neopterygii: Lepisosteus oculatus; Chondrostei: Polypterus senegalus. GLO activity reported in Dipnoi: Protopterus aethiopicus; Elasmobranchii: Dasyatis akajei, Mustelus manazo; Agnatha: Lampetra japonica. No GLO activity in Teleostei: Clarias batrachus. GLO activity reported in Chondrostei: Acipenser baeri.
Any animal lacking GLO activity is unable to synthesize AA and thus depends upon a dietary source of vitamin C for health, growth, and reproduction. 23 GLO activity can be assayed in both crude extracts and microsomes prepared from fresh or deep-frozen tissues. 2% sodium deoxycholate, and centrifuged at 15,000 g for 15 min at 4°C. To increase the accuracy and the repeatability of the activity assay, microsomal preparation is recommended. 25 M sucrose (1 g tissue in 4–6 mL sucrose) and centrifuged at 10,000 g for 15 min at 4°C.