Arabic, Volume 1 by J. R. Smart

By J. R. Smart

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First and foremost, of course, are written sources represented by a host of genres in both prose and poetry. qxd 4/18/05 12:46 PM Page 11 INTRODUCTION • 11 addition, a vast array of nontextual material reveals a great deal about Sufism that verbal communication alone cannot convey. Recent scholarship has made increasingly available for our interpretation a full spectrum of architectural monuments with an array of functions and forms, and visual arts in numerous media and degrees of sophistication.

1470/874 Eshrefog˘lu Ru¯mı¯, Turkish mystical poet. ra¯ r, Central Asian Naqshbandı¯ shaykh. ammad as-Sanu¯ sı¯, Maghribı¯ author, scholar, and ascetic. ma¯ n Ja¯ mı¯, Persian poet and hagiographer, Naqshbandı¯, author of The Seven Thrones and Warm Breezes of Intimacy. rid dynasty from Granada. mad Zarru¯ q, Moroccan mystical author. 15th/9th–16th/10th century Period of the Walı¯ Songo, “nine saints” of Indonesia. a¯ n, second master of the Bekta¯shı¯ order. afawid dynasty rules most of Persia, from Sha¯ h Isma¯ ‘ı¯l’s rise to power in 1501.

Mamlu¯k sultans offered considerable support for Sufi orders and institutions, endowing numerous major residential facilities and architectural complexes. Meanwhile, farther east, the Salju¯qids, who had taken Baghdad in 447/1055, had continued their push northward through Syria and into Anatolia, where a branch of the dynasty established its capital at Konya in the center of what is now Turkey. Under Salju¯qid patronage, the Mawlawı¯ya order of Ru¯mı¯ began and prospered. But the turn of the eighth/14th century saw the rise of the early Ottoman dynasty, which quickly gained control of most of Anatolia in its drive to bring down the Byzantine Empire.

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