Applied Superconductivity: Handbook on Devices and by Paul Seidel
By Paul Seidel
This wide-ranging presentation of utilized superconductivity, from basics and fabrics correct as much as the main points of many functions, is a vital reference for physicists and engineers in educational examine in addition to in undefined.
Readers trying to find a entire assessment on uncomplicated results regarding superconductivity and superconducting fabrics will extend their wisdom and figuring out of either high and low Tc superconductors with admire to their software. know-how, guidance and characterization are coated for bulk, unmarried crystals, thins fi lms in addition to digital units, wires and tapes.
The major advantage of this paintings lies in its large assurance of vital functions in magnets, strength engineering, electronics, sensors and quantum metrology. The reader will locate info on superconducting magnets for various functions like particle physics, fusion study, drugs, and biomagnetism in addition to fabrics processing. SQUIDs and their utilization in medication or geophysics are
thoroughly lined, as are superconducting radiation and particle detectors, points on superconductor electronic electronics, top readers to quantum computing and new devices.
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Extra info for Applied Superconductivity: Handbook on Devices and Applications
During his further experiments, he soon recognized that the observed eﬀect could not be identical to the expected decrease of resistance. The resistance change took place within a temperature interval of only a few hundredths of a degree and, hence, it resembled more a resistance jump than a continuous decrease. 1 shows the curve published by Kamerlingh-Onnes . 2 K) within some hundredths of a degree came a sudden fall not foreseen by the vibrator theory of resistance, that had framed, bringing the resistance at once less than a millionth of its original value at the melting point.
At that time, the ideas about the mechanism of the electric conduction were only poorly developed. It was known that it must be electrons being responsible for charge transport. Also one had measured the temperature dependence of the electric resistance of many metals, and it had been found that near room temperature the resistance decreases linearly with decreasing temperature. However, at low temperatures, this decrease was found to become weaker and weaker. In principle, there were three possibilities to be discussed: 1) The resistance could approach zero value with decreasing temperature (James Dewar, 1904).
Here, the phase of the wave function can change by an integer multiple of 2π, since this does not aﬀect the wave function. We can have the same situation also on a macroscopic scale. Imagine that we have an arbitrary wave propagating without damping in a ring with radius R. The wave can become stationary, if an integer number n of wavelengths ???? exactly ﬁts into the ring. Then we have the condition n???? = 2πR or kR = n, using the wave vector k = 2π/????. If this condition is violated, after a few revolutions the wave disappears due to interference.