Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 43 by Alan J. Southward, Craig M. Young, Lee A. Fuiman
By Alan J. Southward, Craig M. Young, Lee A. Fuiman
Quantity forty three is an eclectic quantity with reports on ecology and biogeography of marine parasites; fecundity: features and function in life-history concepts of marine invertebrates; the ecology of Southern Ocean Pack-ice; and organic and distant sensing views of pigmentation in coral reef organisms. Advances in Marine Biology used to be first released in 1963. Now edited through A.J. Southward (Marine organic organization, UK), P.A. Tyler (Southampton Oceanography organization, UK), C.M. younger (Harbor department Oceanographic establishment, united states) and L.A. Fuiman (University of Texas, USA), the serial publishes in-depth and up to date stories on a variety of themes with the intention to entice postgraduates and researchers in marine biology, fisheries technology, ecology, zoology, oceanography. Eclectic volumes within the sequence are supplemented by way of thematic volumes on such issues as The Biology of Calanoid Copepods . Key good points * AMB first released 1963 * This quantity offers a range of reports at the biology of lesser-known taxa of the phylum Mollusca, together with: * The typically diminutive protobranch bivalves * The slug-like shelled opisthobranchs * The hugely really good and evolutionarily complicated tusk shells * the attractive, helpful, but frustratingly hard-to-collect slit shells
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McCarthy et al. (2000) gave another example. The trematode Microphallus piriformis uses periwinkles, Littorina saxatilis, as intermediate host and silver gulls, Larus argentatus, as final host. It lacks flee-swimming cercariae and gulls become infected by eating snails. Laboratory and field experiments showed that snails with infective stages moved further upwards than uninfected snails or snails with "immature" parasites, increasing the chances of infection. Moore (1995, also Poulin and Thomas, 1999) points out that behavioural changes may be adaptations of hosts to minimize effects by parasites, or they may be adaptations that favour the parasite, for example, by ensuring transmission.
Indeed, if 27 parasite species is considered to be the maximum a species can support (an assumption for which there is no evidence), about 84% of all niches must be considered to be empty. Sasal et al. (1999a) studied communities of digenean endoparasites of 11 species of sparid and 7 species of labrid fishes in the Mediterranean and found a lack of niche saturation: "there was little inter- and/or intraspecific competition or there were enough available space and resources within the host". Zander et al.
Concerning effects on host communities, they may have different effects on different host species infected by them, they can adversely affect a key species in the host community, or they can affect the host phenotypes and thereby the importance of particular hosts in the community. ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHYOF MARINE PARASITES 45 Poulin and Thomas (1999) reviewed work that shows a normal frequency distribution of values of various traits in uninfected hosts. Parasitic infection can lead to a shift in the mean value of the trait (in either direction) and increase the variance, depending on the intensity of infection.