Advances in Ceramics - Electric and Magnetic Ceramics, by Edited by: Assoc. Costas Sikalidis
By Edited by: Assoc. Costas Sikalidis
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The large hysteresis is due to the effects of polarization rotation in larger grains. (Maiwa, 2009) SPS-BT ceramics exhibit relatively large strains regardless of their fine grains. Compared with the finegrained BT ceramics fabricated by other methods, such as the BT ceramics conventionally sintered at 1300 °C and the BT ceramics two-step-sintered at 1300 °C, the SPS-BT ceramics exhibit high d31. The field-induced strain loops of the SPS-BT ceramics are linear; this corresponds to the flat dynamic d33 behavior under high field.
Stress and strain always have the same direction. The constitutive equations applied to cuboids (Figure 1) with basic area A and length L, whose electrodes are supplied with a voltage = ∙ , deliver the charge = ∙ stored on that element Q = d⋅F + C⋅U (3) and the change of length ΔL ΔL = F + d⋅U cm (4) Here F = T ⋅A describes the force acting on the surface A, cm = C =ε ⋅ (5) A specifies the spring constant and sE ⋅ L A is the capacity of the element. Eq. (5) shows how the actuator’s force can be L Integrated Piezoceramics as a Base of Intelligent Actuators 25 influenced directly by adapting its area A.
Unfortunately all types of MAS increase size and moved masses of the actuator. This is a contradiction to an optimized actuator system, fine tuning all its components, which is required for today’s applications. 1 Structured actuators Analyzing the structure of typical piezo-driven systems in order to improve integration of separated functional elements, the actuator itself and the MAS are good candidates for doing a first step. Both elements are connected by a critical interface, where very small motions have to be transmitted together with very high forces.