Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation by Teresa J. Bandosz
By Teresa J. Bandosz
Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation offers a finished precis of the environmental functions of activated carbons. so that it will comprehend the elimination of contaminants and pollution on activated carbons, the theoretical bases of adsorption phenomena are mentioned. the consequences of pore constitution and floor chemistry also are addressed from either technology and engineering views. every one bankruptcy presents examples of genuine purposes with an emphasis at the position of the carbon floor in adsorption or reactive adsorption. the sensible points addressed during this e-book conceal the extensive spectrum of purposes from air and water cleansing and effort garage to struggle fuel elimination and biomedical applications.
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Menendez-Diaz Martin-Gullon Menéndez-Díaz and I. Martín-Gullón pressure drop along with the fact that it can be regenerated or reactivated and therefore reused more than once. However, GAC must have, in addition to the proper micropore size distribution, a high apparent density, a high hardness and a low abrasion index. To meet these requirements a lot of R&D is focused on the development of better GAC. Granular activated carbons can be divided in two groups: • Unshaped or broken GAC • Shaped GAC of a specific form Shaped GAC is a carbon, which has been processed to have an specific shape such as that of a cylinder.
Activation with oxygen Chemical reaction of carbon with oxygen yields simultaneously carbon monoxide and dioxide: C + O2 2C + O2 > CO2 > 2CO AH=-387 kJ mol"1 AH=-226 kJ mol"1 (3) (4) Both reactions are highly exothermic. Although the combustion reaction is one of the most important for mankind, the reaction mechanisms are still uncertain. It seems that both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are primary products, and the ratio CO/CO2 increases with temperature. Due to the high enthalpy, the temperature of the reaction is extremely difficult to control, and often a reaction runaway (self ignition or uncontrolled temperature) takes place so that the reaction is governed by diffusion control burning the carbon only on the surface of the particle and not in the inner surface.
Menendez-Diaz Martin-Gullon Menéndez-Díaz and I. 1. Pretreatments The raw material will need some pretreatments prior to its actiYation. In the case of regular powdered or granular broken carbons, the raw material must first be prepared to the required particle size by crushing and sieving. Sometimes, a washing step is applied with water or acid in order to remove any dirt coming with the raw material and to reduce any mineral matter. If the raw material is a coking coal, preoxidation treatment is necessary: a long period of air-preoxidation at moderate temperatures (say 453-573 K), stabilizes the coal by creating crosslinkage within the coal structure, which prevents the fluid phase from occurring during carbonization .